Grihya-Sutra Of Hiranyakesin

Share
Summer Savings on Flights, Hotels & More! Get up to $15* Off with Promo Code SUMMER15. Book Now

 

 

GRIHYA-SUTRA OF HIRANYAKESIN.

 

The Sacred Books of the East Vol. 30: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2

RULES OF VEDIC DOMESTIC CEREMONIES

TRANSLATED BY

HERMANN OLDENBERG

PART II

GOBHILA, HIRANYAKESIN, APASTAMBA

APASTAMBA'S YAGNA-PARIBHASHA-SUTRAS

TRANSLATED BY

F. MAX MULLER

Clarendon: The Oxford University Press

[1892]

 

GRIHYA-SUTRA OF HIRANYAKESIN.

INTRODUCTORY NOTE TO THE GRIHYA-SUTRA OF HIRANYAKESIN.

GRIHYA-SUTRA OF HIRANYAKESIN.

PRASNA I, PATALA 1, SECTION 1.

Footnotes

PATALA 1, SECTION 2.

Footnotes

PATALA 1, SECTION 3.

Footnotes

PATALA 1, SECTION 4.

Footnotes

PRASNA I, PATALA 2, SECTION 5.

Footnotes

PATALA 2, SECTION 6.

Footnotes

PATALA 2, SECTION 7.

Footnotes

PATALA 2, SECTION 8.

Footnotes

PRASNA I, PATALA 3, SECTION 9.

Footnotes

PATALA 3, SECTION 10.

Footnotes

PATALA 3, SECTION 11.

Footnotes

PRASNA I, PATALA 4, SECTION 12.

Footnotes

PATALA 4, SECTION 13.

Footnotes

PATALA 4, SECTION 14.

Footnotes

PATALA 4, SECTION 15.

Footnotes

PRASNA I, PATALA 5, SECTION 16. [*16]

Footnotes

PATALA 5, SECTION 17.

Footnotes

PATALA 5, SECTION 18.

Footnotes

PRASNA I, PATALA 6, SECTION 19.

Footnotes

PRASNA I, PATALA 6, SECTION 20.

Footnotes

PATALA 6, SECTION 21.

Footnotes

PRASNA I, PATALA 7, SECTION 22.

Footnotes

PATALA 7, SECTION 23.

Footnotes

PATALA 7, SECTION 24.

Footnotes

PATALA 7, SECTION 25.

Footnotes

PATALA 7, SECTION 26 [*1].

Footnotes

PRASNA I, PATALA 8, SECTION 27.

PATALA 8, SECTION 28.

Footnotes

PATALA 8, SECTION 29.

Footnotes

PRASNA II, PATALA 1, SECTION 1,

Footnotes

PATALA 1, SECTION 2.

Footnotes

PATALA 1, SECTION 3.

Footnotes

PATALA 1, SECTION 4.

Footnotes

PATALA 1, SECTION 5.

PATALA 1, SECTION 6.

Footnotes

PRASNA II, PATALA 2, SECTION 7.

Footnotes

PRASNA II, PATALA 3, SECTION 8.

Footnotes

PATALA 3, SECTION 9.

Footnotes

PRASNA II, PATALA 4, SECTION 10.

Footnotes

PATALA 4, SECTION 11.

Footnotes

PATALA 4, SECTION 12.

Footnotes

PATALA 4, SECTION 13.

Footnotes

PRASNA II, PATALA 5, SECTION 14.

Footnotes

PATALA 5, SECTION 15.

Footnotes

PRASNA II, PATALA 6 SECTION 16.

Footnotes

PRASNA II, PATALA 7, SECTION 17.

Footnotes

PRASNA II, PATALA 8, SECTION 18.

Footnotes

PATALA 8, SECTION 19.

Footnotes

PATALA 8, SECTION 20.

Footnotes

Footnotes

PATALA 1, SECTION 1.

Footnotes

PATALA 1, SECTION 2.

Footnotes

PATALA 1, SECTION 3.

Footnotes

PATALA 2, SECTION 4.

Footnotes

PATALA 2, SECTION 5.

Footnotes

PATALA 2, SECTION 6.

PATALA 3, SECTION 7.

Footnotes

PATALA 3, SECTION 8.

Footnotes

PATALA 3, SECTION 9.

Footnotes

PATALA 4, SECTION 10.

Footnotes

PATALA 4, SECTION 11.

Footnotes

PATALA 5, SECTION 12.

Footnotes

PATALA 5, SECTION 13.

Footnotes

PATALA 6, SECTION 14.

Footnotes

PATALA 6, SECTION 15.

Footnotes

PATALA 6, SECTION 16.

Footnotes

PATALA 7, SECTION 17.

PATALA 7, SECTION 18.

Footnotes

PATALA 7, SECTION 19.

Footnotes

PATALA 7, SECTION 20.

Footnotes

PATALA 8, SECTION 21.

Footnotes

PATALA 8, SECTION 22.

Footnotes

PATALA 8, SECTION 23.

End of the Apastambiya-Grihya-sutra.

Footnotes

 

 

 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE TO THE GRIHYA-SUTRA OF HIRANYAKESIN.

AFTER the excellent remarks of Professor Buhler on the position of Hiranyakesin among the Sutra authors of the Black Yagur-veda (Sacred Books, vol. ii, p. xxiii seq.), I can here content myself with shortly indicating the materials on which my translation of this Grihya-sutra, which was unpublished when I began to translate it, is based. For the first half of the work I could avail myself, in the first place, of the text, together with the commentary of Matridatta, which the late Dr. Schoenberg of Vienna had prepared for publication, and which was based on a number of MSS collated by him. It is my melancholy duty gratefully to acknowledge here the kindness with which that prematurely deceased young scholar has placed at my disposal the materials he had collected, and the results of his labour which he continued till the last days of his life. For the second half of the Sutra his death deprived me of this important assistance; here then Professors Kielhorn of Gottingen and Buhler of Vienna have been kind enough to enable me to finish the task of this translation, by lending me two MSS. of the text and two MSS. of Matridatta's commentary which they possess.

Finally, Dr. J. Kirste of Vienna very kindly sent me the proof-sheets of his valuable edition before it was published. With the aid of these my translation has been revised.

 

[p. 136] [p. 137]

 

GRIHYA-SUTRA OF HIRANYAKESIN.

 

PRASNA I, PATALA 1, SECTION 1.

1. We shall explain the Upanayana (i.e. the initiation of the student).

2. [*2] Let him initiate a Brahmana at the age of seven years,

3. A Raganya, of eleven, a Vaisya, of twelve.

4. [*4] A Brahmana in the spring, a Raganya in the summer, a Vaisya in the autumn.

5. In the time of the increasing moon, under an auspicious constellation, preferably (under a constellation) the name of which is masculine,

6. [*6] He should serve food to an even number of Brahmanas and should cause them to say, 'An auspicious day! Hail! Good luck!'--

7. (Then he) should have the boy satiated, should

[p. 138]

have his hair shaven, and after (the boy) has bathed and has been decked with ornaments--

8. He should dress him in a (new) garment which has not yet been washed.

9. [*9] In a place inclined towards the east, (or) inclined towards the north, (or) inclined towards northeast, or in an even (place), he raises (the surface on which he intends to sacrifice), sprinkles it with water,

10. Kindles fire by attrition, or fetches common (worldly) fire, puts the fire down, and puts wood on the fire.

11. [*11] He strews eastward-pointed Darbha grass round the fire;

12. Or (the grass which is strewn) to the west and to the east (of the fire), may be northward-pointed.

13. [*13] He (arranges the Darbha blades so as to) lay the southern (blades) uppermost, the northern ones below, if their points are turned (partly) towards the east and (partly) towards the north.

14. [*14] Having strewn Darbha grass, to the south of the fire, in the place destined for the Brahman,

15. [*15] Having with the two (verses), 'I take (the fire) to myself,' and, 'The fire which (has entered)'--taken possession of the fire,

16. [*16] And having, to the north of the fire, spread out Darbha grass, he prepares the (following) objects,

[p. 139]

according as they are required (for the ceremony which he is going to perform):

17. [*17] A stone, a (new) garment which has not yet been washed, a skin (of an antelope, or a spotted deer, &c.), a threefold-twisted girdle of Munga grass if he is a Brahmana (who shall be initiated), a bowstring for a Raganya, a woollen thread for a Vaisya, a staff of Bilva or of Palasa wood for a Brahmana, of Nyagrodha wood for a Raganya, of Udumbara wood for a Vaisya.

18. [*18] He binds together the fuel, twenty-one pieces of wood, or as many as there are oblations to be made.

19. Together with that fuel he ties up the (three) branches of wood which are to be laid round the fire, (which should have the shape of) pegs.

20. [*20] (He gets ready, besides, the spoon called) Darvi, a bunch of grass, the Agya pot, the pot for the Pranita water, and whatever (else) is required;

21. All (those objects) together, or (one after the other) as it happens.

22. [*22] At that time the Brahman suspends the sacrificial cord over his left shoulder, sips water, passes by the fire, on its west side, to the south side, throws away a grass blade from the Brahman's seat, touches water, and sits down with his face turned towards the fire.

[p. 140]

23. [*23] He takes as 'purifiers' two straight Darbha blades with unbroken points of one span's length, cuts them off with something else than his nail, wipes them with water, pours water into a vessel over which he has laid the purifiers, fills (that vessel) up to near the brim, purifies (the water) three times with the two Darbha strainers, holding their points to the north, places (the water) on Darbha grass on the north side of the fire, and covers it with Darbha grass.

24. [*24] Having consecrated the Prokshani water by means of the purifiers as before, having placed the vessels upright, and having untied the fuel, he sprinkles (the sacrificial vessels) three times with the whole (Prokshani water).

25. [*25] Having warmed the Darvi spoon (over the fire), having wiped it, and warmed it again, he puts it down.

26. Having besprinkled (with water) the Darbha grass with which the fuel was tied together, he throws it into the fire.

27. [*27] He melts the Agya, pours the Agya into the Agya pot over which he has laid the purifiers, takes some coals (from the fire) towards the north, puts (the Agya) on these (coals), throws light (on the

[p. 141]

Agya by means of burning Darbha blades), throws two young Darbha shoots into it, moves a fire-brand round it three times, takes it (from the coals) towards the north, pushes the coals back (into the fire), purifies the Agya three times with the two purifiers, holding their points towards the north, (drawing them through the Agya from west to east and) taking them back (to the west each time), throws the two purifiers into the fire,

Footnotes

137:2 1, 2. The statement commonly given in the Grihya-sutras and Dharma-sutras is, that the initiation of a Brahmana shall take place in his eighth year, though there are differences of opinion whether in the eighth year after conception, or after birth (Asvalayana-Grihya I, 19, 1. 2). Matridatta states that the rule given here in the Grihya-sutra refers to the seventh year after birth. In the Dharma-sutra (comp. Apastamba I, 1, 18) it is stated that the initiation of a Brahmana shall take place in the eighth year after his conception. Comp. the remarks of Professor Bidder, S.B.E., vol. ii, p. xxiii.

137:4 Apastamba I, 1, 18.

137:6 Comp. Apastamba I, 13, 8 with Buhler's note.

138:9 Paraskara I, 1, 2; 4, 3; Asvalayana I, 3, 1, &c.

138:11 Asvalayana l.l.; Sankhayana I, 8, 1, &c.

138:13 Gobhila I, 7, 14.

138:14 Gobhila I, 6, 13; Paraskara I, 1, 2, &c.

138:15 Taittiriya Samhita V, 9, 1. Comp. also the parallel passages, Satapatha Brahmana VII, 3, 2, 17; Katyayana-Sraut. XVII, 3, 27.

138:16 Gobhila I, 7, 1.

139:17 Sankhayana II, 1, 15 seqq., &c. As to the stone, comp. below, I, 1, 4, 13.

139:18 Comp. Asvalayana I, 10, 3, and the passages quoted in the note (vol. xxix, p. 173).

139:20 Regarding the bunch of grass, see below, I, 2, 6, 9.

139:22 Gobhila I, 6, 14 seq. Comp. the passages quoted in the note.

140:23 Gobhila I, 7, 21 seq.; Sankhayana I, 8, 14 seq. The water mentioned in this Sutra is the Pranita water.

140:24 Regarding the Prokshani water, see Sankhayana I, 8, 25 note. The word which I have translated by 'vessels' is bilavanti, which literally means 'the things which have brims.' Probably this expression here has some technical connotation unknown to me. Matridatta simply says, bilavanti patrani.--'As before' means, 'as stated with regard to the Pranita water.'

140:25 Paraskara I, 1, 3.

140:27 Sankhayana I, 8, 18 seq.

 

 

PATALA 1, SECTION 2.

1. [*1] And lays the (three) pegs round (the fire).

2. On the west side (of the fire) he places the middle (peg), with its broad end to the north,

3. On the south side (of the fire the second peg), so that it touches the middle one, with its broad end to the east,

4. On the north side (of the fire the third peg), so that it touches the middle one, with its broad end to the east.

5. To the west of the fire (the teacher who is going to initiate the student), sits down with his face turned towards the east.

6. To the south (of the teacher) the boy, wearing the sacrificial cord over his left shoulder, having sipped water, sits down and touches (the teacher).

7. [*7] Then (the teacher) sprinkles water round the fire (in the following way):

8. On the south side (of the fire he sprinkles

[p. 142]

water) from west to east with (the words), 'Aditi! Give thy consent!'--

9. On the west side, from south to north, with (the words), 'Anumati! Give thy consent!' On the north side, from west to east, with (the words), 'Sarasvati! Give thy consent!'--

10. On all sides, so as to keep his right side turned towards (the fire), with (the Mantra), 'God Savitri! Give thy impulse!' (Taitt. Samh. I, 7, 7, 1).

11. [*11] Having (thus) sprinkled (water) round (the fire), and having anointed the fuel (with Agya), he puts it on (the fire) with (the Mantra), 'This fuel is thy self, Gatavedas! Thereby thou shalt be inflamed and shalt grow. Inflame us and make us grow; through offspring, cattle, holy lustre, and through the enjoyment of food make us increase. Svaha!'

12. He then sacrifices with the (spoon called) Darvi (the following oblations):

13. [*13] Approaching the Darvi (to the fire) by the northerly junction of the pegs (laid round the fire), and fixing his mind on (the formula), 'To Pragapati, to Manu svaha!' (without pronouncing that Mantra), he sacrifices a straight, long, uninterrupted (stream of Agya), directed towards the south-east.

14. Approaching the Darvi (to the fire) by the southern junction of the pegs (laid round the fire),

[p. 143]

(he sacrifices) a straight (stream of Agya), directed towards the northeast, with (the Mantra which he pronounces), 'To Indra svaha!'

15. Having (thus) poured out the two Aghara oblations, he sacrifices the two Agyabhagas,

16. [*16] With (the words), 'To Agni svaha!' over the easterly part of the northerly part (of the fire); with (the words), 'To Soma svaha!' over the easterly part of the southerly part (of the fire).

17. [*17] Between them he sacrifices the other (oblations).

18. [*18] (He makes four oblations with the following Mantras): 'Thou whom we have set to work, Gatavedas! carry forward (our offerings). Agni! Perceive this work (i.e. the sacrifice), as it is performed (by us). Thou art a healer, a creator of medicine. Through thee may we obtain cows, horses, and men. Svaha!

'Thou who liest down athwart, thinking, "It is I who keep (all things) asunder:" to thee who art propitious (to me), I sacrifice this stream of ghee in the fire. Svaha!

'To the propitious goddess svaha!

'To the accomplishing goddess svaha!'

Footnotes

141:1 2, 1. The 'pegs' are the pieces of wood mentioned above, I, 19.

141:7 7-10. Gobhila I, 3, 1 seq. The vocative Sarasvate instead of Sarasvati is given by the MSS. also in the Khadira-Grihya 1, 2, 19.

142:11 As to the Mantra, compare Sankhayana II, 10, 4, &c.

142:13 13, 14. The two oblations described in these Sutras are the so-called Agharas; see Sutra 15, and Paraskara I, 5, 3; Asvalayana I, 10, 13. Regarding the northern and the southern junction of the Paridhi woods, see above, Sutras 3 and 4. According to Matridatta, the words 'long, uninterrupted' (Sutra 13) are to be supplied also in Sutra 14.

143:16 Asvalayana I, 10, 13; Sankhayana I, 9, 7, &c. As to the expressions uttarardhapurvardhe and dakshinardhapurvardhe, comp. Gobhila I, 8, 14 and the note.

143:17 I.e. between the places at which the two 'Agya portions' are offered. Comp. Sankhayana I, 9, 8.

143:18 Satapatha Brahmana XIV, 9, 3, 3 (= Brihad Aranyaka VI, 3, 1; S.B.E., vol. xv, p. 210); Mantra-Brahmana I, 5, 6.

 

[p. 144]

 

PATALA 1, SECTION 3.

1. This is the rite for all Darvi-sacrifices.

2. [*2] At the end of the Mantras constantly the word Svaha (is pronounced).

3. [*3] (Oblations) for which no Mantras are prescribed (are made merely with the words), 'To such and such (a deity) svaha!'--according to the deity (to whom the oblation is made).

4. [*4] He sacrifices with the Vyahritis, 'Bhuh! Bhuvah! Suvah!'--with the single (three Vyahritis) and with (the three) together.

5. [*5] (The Mantras for the two chief oblations are), the (verse), 'Life-giving, Agni!' (Taitt. Brahmana I, 2, 1, 11), (and),

'Life-giving, O god, choosing long life, thou whose face is full of ghee, whose back is full of ghee, Agni, drinking ghee, the noble ambrosia that comes from the cow, lead this (boy) to old age, as a father (leads) his son. Svaha!'

6. (Then follow oblations with the verses),

'This, O Varuna' (Taitt. Samh. II, 1, 11, 6),

'For this I entreat thee' (Taitt. Samh., loc. cit.),

[p. 145]

'Thou, Agni' (Taitt. Samh. II, 5, 12, 3),

'Thus thou, Agni' (Taitt. Samh., loc. cit.),

'Thou, Agni, art quick. Being quick, appointed (by us) in our mind (as our messenger), thou who art quick, earnest the offering (to the gods). O quick one, bestow medicine on us! Svaha!'--(and finally) the (verse),

'Pragapati!' (Taitt. Samh. I, 8, 14, 2).

7. [*7] (With the verse), 'What I have done too much in this sacrifice, or what I have done here deficiently, all that may Agni Svishtakrit, he who knows it, make well sacrificed and well offered for me. To Agni Svishtakrit, the offerer of well-offered (sacrifices), the offerer of everything, to him who makes us succeed in our offerings and in our wishes, svaha!'--he offers (the Svishtakrit oblation) over the easterly part of the northerly part (of the fire), separated from the other oblations.

8. [*8] Here some add as subordinate oblations, before the Svishtakrit, the Gaya, Abhyatana, and Rashtrabhrit (oblations).

9. [*9] The Gaya (oblations) he sacrifices with (the thirteen Mantras), 'Thought, svaha! Thinking, svaha!'--or, 'To thought svaha! To thinking svaha!' (&c.);

10. [*10] The Abhyatana (oblations) with (the eighteen Mantras), 'Agni is the lord of beings; may he protect me' (&c.).

11. [*11] (The words), 'In this power of holiness, in

[p. 146]

this worldly power (&c.)' are added to (each section of) the Abhyatana formulas.

12. [*12] With (the last of the Abhyatana formulas) 'Fathers! Grandfathers!' he sacrifices or performs worship, wearing the sacrificial cord over his right shoulder.

13. [*13] The Rashtrabhrit (oblations he sacrifices) with (the twelve Mantras), 'The champion of truth, he whose law is truth.' After having quickly repeated (each) section, he sacrifices the first oblation with (the words), 'To him svaha!' the second (oblation) with (the words), 'To them svaha!'

14. [*14] Having placed a stone near the northerly junction of the pegs (which are laid round the fire), (the teacher)--

Footnotes

144:2 3, 2. Gobhila I, 9, 25.

144:3 Sankhayana I, 9, 18.

144:4 Sankhayana I, 12, 12. 13; Gobhila I, 9, 27. As to suvah, the spelling of the Taittiriyas for svah, see Indische Studien, XIII, 105.

144:5 5, 6. In the second Mantra we should read vrinano instead of grinano; comp. Atharva-veda II, 13, 1. As to the Mantras that follow, comp. Paraskara I, 2, 8; Taittiriya Aranyaka IV, 20, 3.--Regarding the Mantra tvam Agne ayasi (sic), comp. Taitt. Brah. II, 4, 1, 9; Asvalayana-Srauta-sutra I, 11, 13; Katyayana-Srauta-sutra XXV, 1, 11; Indische Studien, XV, 125.

145:7 Asvalayana-Grihya I, 10, 23; Satapatha Brahmana XI V, 9, 4, 24.

145:8 Comp. the next Sutras and Paraskara I, 5, 7-10.

145:9 Taittiriya Samhita III, 4, 4.

145:10 Taittiriya Samhita III, 4, 5.

145:11 See the end of the section quoted in the last note.

146:12 'He performs worship with that Mantra, wearing the sacrificial cord over his right shoulder, to the Manes. According to others, he worships Agni. But this would stand in contradiction to the words (of the Mantra).' Matridatta.

146:13 Taittiriya. Samhita III, 4, 7. 'To him' (tasmai) is masculine, 'to them' (tabhyah) feminine. The purport of these words will be explained best by a translation of the first section of the Rashtrabhrit formulas: 'The champion of truth, he whose law is truth, Agni is the Gandharva. His Apsaras are the herbs; "sap" is their name. May he protect this power of holiness and this worldly power. May they protect this power of holiness and this worldly power. To him svaha! To them svaha!'

146:14 See above, section 2,  section 13.

 

 

PATALA 1, SECTION 4.

1. [*1] Makes the boy tread on (that stone) with his right foot, with (the verse), 'Tread on this stone; like a stone be firm. Destroy those who seek to do thee harm; overcome thy enemies.'

[p. 147]

2. [*2] After (the boy) has taken off his old (garment), (the teacher) makes him put on a (new) garment that has not yet been washed, with (the verses),

'The goddesses who spun, who wove, who spread out, and who drew out the skirts on both sides, may those goddesses clothe thee with long life. Blessed with life put on this garment.

'Dress him; through (this) garment make him reach a hundred (years) of age; extend his life. Brihaspati has given this garment to king Soma that he may put it on.

'Mayst thou live to old age; put on the garment! Be a protector of the human tribes against imprecation. Live a hundred years, full of vigour; clothe thyself in the increase of wealth.'

3. [*3] Having (thus) made (the boy) put on (the new garment, the teacher) recites over him (the verse),

'Thou hast put on this garment for the sake of welfare; thou hast become a protector of thy friends against imprecation. Live a hundred long years; a noble man, blessed with life, mayst thou distribute wealth.'

4. [*4] He then winds the girdle three times from left to right round (the boy, so that it covers) his navel. (He does so only) twice, according to some (teachers). (It is done) with (the verse),

[p. 148]

'Here she has come to us who drives away sin, purifying our guard and our protection, bringing us strength by (the power of) inhalation and exhalation, the sister of the gods, this blessed girdle.'

5. On the north side of the navel he makes a threefold knot (in the girdle) and draws that to the south side of the navel.

6. [*6] He then arranges for him the skin (of an antelope, &c., see Sutra 7) as an outer garment, with (the Mantras),

'The firm, strong eye of Mitra, glorious splendour, powerful and flaming, a chaste, mobile vesture, this skin put on, a valiant (man), N.N.!

'May Aditi tuck up thy garment, that thou mayst study the Veda, for the sake of insight and belief and of not forgetting what thou hast learnt, for the sake of holiness and of holy lustre!'

7. [*7] The skin of a black antelope (is worn) by a Brahmana, the skin of a spotted deer by a Raganya, the skin of a he-goat by a Vaisya.

8. [*8] He then gives him in charge (to the gods), a Brahmana with (the verse), 'We give this (boy) in charge, O Indra, to Brahman, for the sake of great learning. May he (Brahman?) lead him to old age, and may he (the boy) long watch over learning.'

[p. 149]

A Raganya (he gives in charge to the gods) with (the verse), 'We give this boy in charge, O Indra, to Brahman, for the sake of great royalty. May he lead him to old age, and may he long watch over royalty.'

A Vaisya (he gives in charge) with (the verse), 'We give this boy in charge, O Indra, to Brahman, for the sake of great wealth. May he lead him to old age, and may he long watch over wealth.'

9. [*9] (The teacher) makes him sit down to the west of the fire, facing the north, and makes him eat the remnants of the sacrificial food, with these (Mantras), 'On thee may wisdom, on thee may offspring' (Taitt. Aranyaka, Andhra redaction, X, 44),--altering (the text of the Mantras).

10. [*10] Some make (the student) eat 'sprinkled butter.'

11. (The teacher) looks at (the student) while he is eating, with the two verses, 'At every pursuit we invoke strong (Indra)' (Taitt. Samh. IV, 1, 2, 1), (and), 'Him, Agni, lead to long life and splendour' (Taitt: Samh. II, 3, 10, 3).

12. Some make (the boy) eat (that food with these two verses).

13. [*13] After (the boy) has sipped water, (the teacher) causes him to touch (water) and recites over him (the verse), 'A hundred autumns are before us, O gods, before ye have made our bodies decay, before (our)

[p. 150]

sons have become fathers; do not destroy us before we have reached (our due) age.'

End of the First Patala.

Footnotes

146:1 4, 1. Comp. Sankhayana I, 13, 12; Paraskara I, 7, 1.

147:2 Paraskara I, 4, 13. 1 2; Atharva-veda II, 13, 2. 3 (XIX, 24). Instead of paridatava u, we ought to read, as the Atharva-veda has, paridhatava u.

147:3 Atharva-veda II, 13, 3; XIX, 24, 6.

147:4 Sankhayana II, 2, 1; Paraskara II, 2, 8. The text of the Mantra as given by Hiranyakesin is very corrupt, but the corruptions may be as old as the Hiranyakesi-sutra itself, or even older.

148:6 I propose to correct garishnu into karishnu. See Sankhayana II, 1, 30.

148:7 Sankhayana II, 1, 2. 4. 5, &c.

148:8 In the first hemistich I propose to correct pari dadhmasi into pari dadmasi. The verse seems to be an adaptation of a Mantra which contained a form of the verb pari-dha (comp. Atharva-veda XIX, 24, 2); thus the reading pari . . . dadhmasi found in the MSS. may be easily accounted for. The second hemistich is very corrupt, but the Atharva-veda (loc. cit.: yathainam garase nayat) shows at least the general sense.

149:9 The text of those Mantras runs thus, 'On me may wisdom, &c.'; he alters them so as to say, 'On thee,' &c.

149:10 Regarding the term sprinkled butter,' comp. Asvalayana-Grihya IV, 1, 18. 19.

149:13 Rig-veda I, 89. 9.

 

 

PRASNA I, PATALA 2, SECTION 5.

1. [*1] 'To him who comes (to us), we have come. Drive ye away death! May we walk with him safely; may he walk here in bliss; (may he) walk in bliss until (he returns) to his house'--this (verse the teacher repeats) while (the boy) walks round the fire so as to keep his right side turned towards it.

2. [*2] (The teacher) then causes him to say, 'I have come hither to be a student. Initiate me! I will be a student, impelled by the god Savitri.'

3. (The teacher then) asks him:

4. 'What is thy name?'

5. [*5] He says, 'N.N!'--what his name is.

6. [*6] (The teacher says), 'Happily, god Savitri, may I attain the goal with this N.N.'--here he pronounces (the student's) two names.

7. [*7] With (the verse), 'For bliss may the goddesses afford us their protection; may the waters afford drink to us. With bliss and happiness may they overflow us'--both wipe themselves off.

[p. 151]

8. [*8] Then (the teacher) touches with his right hand (the boy's) right shoulder, and with his left (hand) his left (shoulder), and draws (the boy's) right arm towards himself with the Vyahritis, the Savitri verse, and with (the formula), 'By the impulse of the god Savitri, with the arms of the two Asvins, with Pushan's hands I initiate thee, N.N.!'

9. [*9] He then seizes with his right hand (the boy's) right hand together with the thumb, with (the words), 'Agni has seized thy hand; Soma has seized thy hand; Savitri has seized thy hand; Sarasvati has seized thy hand; Pushan has seized thy hand; Brihaspati has seized thy hand; Mitra has seized thy hand; Varuna has seized thy hand; Tvashtri has seized thy hand; Dhatri has seized thy hand; Vishnu has seized thy hand; Pragapati has seized thy hand.'

10. [*10] 'May Savitri protect thee. Mitra art thou by rights; Agni is thy teacher.

'By the impulse of the god Savitri become Brihaspati's pupil. Eat water. Put on fuel. Do the service. Do not sleep in the day-time'--thus (the teacher) instructs him.

11. [*11] Then (the teacher) gradually moves his right

[p. 152]

hand down over (the boy's) right shoulder and touches the place of his heart with (the formulas), 'Thy heart shall dwell in my heart; my mind thou shalt follow with thy mind; in my word thou shalt rejoice with all thy heart; may Brihaspati join thee to me!

'To me alone thou shalt adhere. In me thy thoughts shall dwell. Upon me thy veneration shall be bent. When I speak, thou shalt be silent.'

12. With (the words), 'Thou art the knot of all breath; do not loosen thyself'--(he touches) the place of his navel.

13. [*13] After (the teacher) has recited over him (the formula),

'Bhuh! Bhuvah! Suvah! By offspring may I become rich in offspring! By valiant sons, rich in valiant sons! By splendour, rich in splendour! By wealth, rich in wealth! By wisdom, rich in wisdom! By pupils, rich in holy lustre!'

And (again the formulas),

'Bhuh! I place thee in the Rikas, in Agni, on the earth, in voice, in the Brahman, N.N.!

'Bhuvah! I place thee in the Yagus, in Vayu, in the air, in breath, in the Brahman, N.N.!

'Suvah! I place thee in the Samans, in Surya, in heaven, in the eye, in the Brahman, N.N.!

'May I be beloved (?) and dear to thee, N.N.!

[p. 153]

May I be dear to thee, the fire (?), N.N.! Let us dwell here! Let us dwell in breath and life! Dwell in breath and life, N.N.!'--

14. [*14] He then seizes with his right hand (the boy's) right hand together with the thumb, with the five sections, 'Agni is long-lived.'

15. 'May (Agni) bestow on thee long life everywhere' (Taitt. Samh. I, 3, 14, 4)--

Footnotes

150:1 5, 1. I read, pra su mrityum yvyotana; comp. Mantra-Brahmana I, 6, 14 (Rig-veda I, 136, 1, &c.). As to the last Pada, comp. Rig-veda III, 53, 20.

150:2 2 seq. Comp. Gobhila II, 20, 21 seq.; Paraskara II, 2, 6; Sankhayana II, 2, 4, &c.

150:5 Matridatta, 'As it is said below, "he pronounces his two names" (Sutra 6), the student should here also pronounce his two names, for instance, "I am Devadatta, Karttika."'

150:6 'His common (vyavaharika) name and his Nakshatra name.' Matridatta.

150:7 Rig-veda X, 9, 4.

151:8 The word which I have translated 'draws . . . towards himself' is the same which is also used in the sense of 'he initiates him' (upanayate). Possibly we should correct the text: dakshinam bahum anv abhyatmam upanayate, 'he turns him towards himself from left to right (literally, following his right arm).' Comp. Sankhayana II, 3, 2.--Regarding the Mantra, comp. Sankhayana II, 2, 12, &c.

151:9 Sankhayana II, 2, 11; 3, 1, &c.

151:10 Sankhayana II, 3, 1; 4, 5. We ought to read apo'sana, instead of apo'sanah as the MSS. have.

151:11 Sankhayana II, 4, 1, &c.

152:13 The reading of the last Mantra is doubtful. Ishtatas should possibly be ishtas, but the genitive analasya, or, as some of the MSS. have, analasya (read, analasasya?), points rather to a genitive like ikkhatas. If we write ikkhatas and analasasya, the translation would be: 'May I be dear to thee, who loves me, N.N.! May I be dear to thee, who art zealous, N.N.!' Comp. Sankhayana II, 3, 3.

153:14 Comp. above, Sutra 9.

 

 

PATALA 2, SECTION 6.

1. (This verse the teacher) murmurs in (the boy's) right ear;

2. (The verse), 'Life-giving, Agni' (Taitt. Samh. I, 3, 14, 4) in his left ear.

3. [*3] Both times he adds (to the verses quoted in the last Sutras the formula), 'Stand fast in Agni and on the earth, in Vayu and in the air, in Surya and in heaven. The bliss in which Agni, Vayu, the sun, the moon, and the waters go their way, in that bliss go thy way, N.N.! Thou hast become the pupil of breath, N.N.!'

4. [*4] Approaching his mouth to (the boy's) mouth he murmurs, 'Intelligence may Indra give thee, intelligence the goddess Sarasvati. Intelligence may the two Asvins, wreathed with lotus, bestow on thee.'

5. [*5] He then gives (the boy) in charge (to the gods and demons, with the formulas), 'To Kashaka (?) I

[p. 154]

give thee in charge. To Antaka I give thee in charge. To Aghora ("the not frightful one") I give thee in charge. To Disease . . . to Yama . . . to Makha . . . to Vasini ("the ruling goddess") . . . to the earth together with Vaisvanara . . . to the waters . . . to the herbs . . . to the trees . . . to Heaven and Earth . . . to welfare . . . to holy lustre . . . to the Visve devas . . . to all beings . . . to all deities I give thee in charge.'

6. [*6] He now teaches him the Savitri, if he has (already) been initiated before.

7. If he has not been initiated (before, he teaches him the Savitri) after three days have elapsed.

8. (He does so) immediately, says Pushkarasadi.

9. [*9] Having placed to the west of the fire a bunch of grass with its points directed towards the north, (the teacher) sits down thereon, facing the east, with (the formula), 'A giver of royal power art thou, a teacher's seat. May I not withdraw from thee.'

10. The boy raises his joined hands towards the sun, embraces (the feet of) his teacher, sits down to the south (of the teacher), addresses (him), 'Recite, sir!' and then says, 'Recite the Savitri, sir!'

11. Having recited over (the boy the verse), 'We call thee, the lord of the hosts' (Taitt. Samh. II, 3, 14, 3), he then recites (the Savitri) to him, firstly Pada by Pada, then hemistich by hemistich, and then the whole verse (in the following way),

[p. 155]

'Bhus! Tat Savitur varenyam (That adorable splendour)--

'Bhuvo! Bhargo devasya dhimahi (of the divine Savitri may we obtain)--

'Suvar! Dhiyo yo nah prakodayat (who should rouse our prayers).--

'Bhur bhuvas! Tat Savitur varenyam bhargo devasya dhimahi--

'Suvar! Dhiyo yo nah prakodayat.--

'Bhur bhuvah suvas! Tat Savitur . . . prakodayat.'

Footnotes

153:3 6, 3. Asvalayana I, 20, 8.

153:4 Asvalayana I, 15, 2; 22, 26; Paraskara II, 4, 8.

153:5 Comp. Sankhayana II, 3, 1; Paraskara II, 2, 21. The name [p. 154] in the first section of the Mantra is spelt Kashakaya and Kasakaya. Comp. Mantra-Brahmana I, 6, 22: Krisana, idam te paridadamy amum; Atharva-veda IV, 10, 7: Karsanas tvabhirakshatu.

 

154:6 'A repetition of the initiation takes place as a penance.' Matridatta.

154:9 9-11. Comp. Sankhayana II, 5, &c.

 

 

PATALA 2, SECTION 7.

1. [*1] He then causes (the student) to put on the fire seven pieces of fresh Palasa wood, with unbroken tops, of one span's length, which have been anointed with ghee.

2. [*2] One (of these pieces of wood he puts on the fire) with (the Mantra), 'To Agni I have brought a piece of wood, to the great Gatavedas. As thou art inflamed, Agni, through that piece of wood, thus inflame me through wisdom, insight, offspring, cattle, holy lustre, and through the enjoyment of food. Svaha!'--

3. (Then he puts on the fire) two (pieces of wood with the same Mantra, using the dual instead of the

[p. 156]

singular), 'To Agni (I have brought) two pieces of wood;'

4. (Then) four (pieces of wood, using the plural), 'To Agni (I have brought) pieces of wood.'

5. [*5] He then sprinkles (water) round (the fire) as above.

6. [*6] 'Thou hast given thy consent;' 'Thou hast given thy impulse'--thus he changes the end of each Mantra.

7. He then worships the (following) deities (with the following Mantras),

8. [*8] Agni with (the words), 'Agni, lord of the vow, I shall keep the vow;'

9. Vayu with (the words), 'Vayu, lord of the vow, (&c.);'

10. Aditya (the sun) with (the words), 'Aditya, lord of the vow, (&c.);'

11. The lord of the vows with (the words), 'Lord of the vows, ruling over the vows (&c.).'

12. [*12] He then gives an optional gift to his Guru (i.e. to the teacher).

13. [*13] (The teacher) makes him rise with (the verse which the student recites), 'Up! with life' (Taitt. Samh. I, 2, 8, 1); he gives him in charge (to the sun) with (the words), 'Sun! This is thy son; I give him in charge to thee;' and he worships the sun with (the Mantra), 'That bright eye created by the gods which rises in the east: may we see it a hundred autumns; may we live a hundred autumns; may we

[p. 157]

rejoice a hundred autumns; may we be glad a hundred autumns; may we prosper a hundred autumns; may we hear a hundred autumns; may we speak a hundred autumns; may we live undecaying a hundred autumns; and may we long see the sun.'

14. [*14] 'May Agni further give thee life. May Agni further grant thee bliss. May Indra with the Maruts here give (that) to thee; may the sun with the Vasus give (it) to thee'--with (this verse the teacher) gives him a staff, and then hands over to him a bowl (for collecting alms).

15. Then he says to him, 'Go out for alms.'

16. [*16] Let him beg of his mother first;

17. [*17] Then (let him beg) in other houses where they are kindly disposed towards him.

18. He brings (the food which he has received) to his Guru (i.e. to the teacher), and announces it to him by saying, '(These are) the alms.'

19. (The teacher accepts it) with the words, 'Good alms they are.'

20. [*20] 'May all gods bless thee whose first garment we accept. May after thee, the prosperous one, the well-born, many brothers and friends be born'--with (this verse the teacher) takes (for himself) the former garment (of the student).

21. When the food (with which the Brahmanas shall be entertained) is ready, (the student) takes some portion of boiled rice, cakes, and flour, mixes

[p. 158]

(these substances) with clarified butter, and sacrifices with (the formulas), 'To Agni svaha! To Soma svaha! To Agni, the eater of food, svaha! To Agni, the lord of food, svaha! To Pragapati svaha! To the Visve devas svaha! To all deities svaha! To Agni Svishtakrit svaha!'

22. Thus (let him sacrifice) wherever (oblations of food are prescribed) for which the deities (to whom they shall be offered) are not indicated.

23. [*23] If the deity is indicated, (let him sacrifice) with (the words), 'To such and such (a deity) svaha!' according to which deity it is.

24. [*24] Taking (again) some portion of the same kinds of food, he offers it as a Bali on eastward-pointed Darbha grass, with (the words), 'To Vastupati (i.e. Vastoshpati) svaha!'

25. [*25] After he has served those three kinds of food to the Brahmanas, and has caused them to say, 'An auspicious day! Hail! Good luck!'--

Footnotes

155:1 7, 1 seq. Comp. Asvalayana I, 21, 1; Sankhayana II, 10, &c. 'The putting of fuel on the fire, and what follows after it, form a part of the chief ceremony, not of the recitation of the Savitri. Therefore in the case of one who has not yet been initiated (see I, 2, 6, 7), it ought to be performed immediately after (the student) has been given in charge (to the gods and demons; I, 2, 6, 5).' Matridatta.

155:2 Paraskara II, 4, 3.

156:5 Comp. above, I, 1, 2, 7 seq.

156:6 He says, 'Anumati! Thou hast given thy consent!' &c.

156:8 8 seq. Comp. Gobhila II, 10, 16.

156:12 Comp. Sankhayana I, 14, 13 seq.

156:13 Paraskara I, 8, 7; I, 6, 3.

157:14 Sankhayana II, 6, 2, &c.

157:16 16 seq. Sankhayana II, 6, 4 seq.; Apastamba I, 3, 28 seq.

157:17 The commentary explains ratikuleshu by gnatiprabhritishu;--comp. yo'sya ratir bhavati, I, 3, 9, 18.

157:20 See above, I, 1, 4, 2, and comp. Atharva-veda II, 13, 5.

158:23 Comp. above, I, 1, 3, 3.

158:24 'The same,' of course, refers to Sutra 21.

158:25 See above, I, 1, 1, 6.

 

 

PATALA 2, SECTION 8.

1. [*1] He keeps through three days the (following) vow:

2. [*2] He eats no pungent or saline food and no vegetables; he sleeps on the ground; he does not drink out of an earthen vessel; he does not give the remnants of his food to a Sudra; he does not eat honey or meat; he does not sleep in the daytime;

[p. 159]

in the morning and in the evening he brings (to his teacher) the food which he has received as alms and a pot of water; every day (he fetches) a bundle of firewood; in the morning and in the evening, or daily in the evening he puts fuel on (the fire, in the following way):

3. [*3] Before sprinkling (water) round (the fire), he wipes (with his wet hand) from left to right round (the fire) with the verse, 'As you have loosed, O Vasus, the buffalo-cow' (Taitt. Samh. IV, 7, 15, 7), and sprinkles (water) round (the fire) as above.

4. [*4] (Then) he puts (four) pieces of wood (on the fire) with the single (Vyahritis) and with (the three Vyahritis) together, and (four other pieces) with (the following four verses),

'This fuel is thine, Agni; thereby thou shalt grow and gain vigour. And may we grow and gain vigour. Svaha!

'May Indra give me insight; may Sarasvati, the goddess, (give) insight; may both Asvins, wreathed with lotus, bestow insight on me. Svaha!

'The insight that dwells with the Apsaras, the mind that dwells with the Gandharvas, the divine insight and that which is born from men: may that insight, the fragrant one, rejoice in me! Svaha!

'May insight, the fragrant one, that assumes all shapes, the gold-coloured, mobile one, come to me. Rich in sap, swelling with milk, may she, insight, the lovely-faced one, rejoice in me! Svaha!'

5. [*5] Having wiped round (the fire) in the same way, he sprinkles (water) round (the fire) as above.

[p. 160]

6. [*6] He worships the fire with the Mantras, 'What thy splendour is, Agni, may I thereby' (Taitt. Samh. III, 5, 3, 2), and 'On me may insight, on me offspring' (Taitt. Aranyaka X, 44).

7. [*7] After the lapse of those three days (Sutra 1) he serves in the same way the three kinds of food (stated above) to the Brahmanas, causes them to say, 'An auspicious day! Hail! Good luck!' and discharges himself of his vow by (repeating) these (Mantras) with (the necessary) alterations, 'Agni, lord of the vow, I have kept the vow' (see above, I, 2, 7, 8).

8. [*8] He keeps the same observances afterwards (also),

9. [*9] Dwelling in his teacher's house. He may eat, (however,) pungent and saline food and vegetables.

10. [*10] He wears a staff, has his hair tied in one knot, and wears a girdle,

11. Or he may tie the lock on the crown of the head in a knot.

12. He wears (an upper garment) dyed with red Loth, or the skin (of an antelope, &c.).

13. He does not have intercourse with women.

14. [*14] (The studentship lasts) forty-eight years, or

[p. 161]

twenty-four (years), or twelve (years), or until he has learnt (the Veda).

15. He should not, however, omit keeping the observances.

16. [*16] At the beginning and on the completion of the study of a Kanda (of the Black Yagur-veda he sacrifices) with (the verse), 'The lord of the seat, the wonderful one, the friend of Indra, the dear one, I have entreated for the gift of insight. Svaha!'

In the second place the Rishi of the Kanda (receives an oblation).

(Then follow oblations with the verses), 'This, O Varuna;' 'For this I entreat thee;' 'Thou, Agni;' 'Thus thou, Agni;' 'Thou, Agni, art quick;' 'Pragapati!' and, 'What I have done too much in this sacrifice.' Here some add as subordinate oblations the Gaya, Abhyatana, and Rashtrabhrit (oblations) as above.

End of the Second Patala.

Footnotes

158:1 8, 1. This is the Savitra-vrata. Comp. I, 2, 6, 7; Sankhayana, Introduction, p. 8.

158:2 Regarding the term 'pungent food,' comp. Professor Buhler's notes on Apastamba I, 1, 2, 23; II, 6, 15, 15.

159:3 See I, 1, 2, 7 seq.; Apastamba Dharma-sutra I, 1, 4, 18.

159:4 Apastamba I, 1, 4, 16; Sankhayana II, 10, 4, &c.

159:5 See Sutra 3 and the note.

160:6 Asvalayana-Grihya I, 21, 4.

160:7 See I, 2, 7, 21. 25.

160:8 He keeps the observances stated in Sutra 2.

160:9 See above, Sutra 2. Comp. Apastamba Dharma-sutra I, 1, 2, II, and Sutra 23 of the same section, which stands in contradiction to this Sutra of Hiranyakesin.

160:10 10, 11. Comp. Apastamba I, I, 2, 31. 32. Matridatta has received into his explanation of the eleventh Sutra the words, 'he should shave the rest of the hair,' which in the Apastambiya-sutra are found in the text.

160:14 Asvalayana-Grihya I, 22, 3; Apastamba Dharma-sutra I, 1, 2, 12 seq.

161:16 Rig-veda I, 18, 6. As the Rishis of the single Kandas are considered, Pragapati, Soma, Agni, the Visve devas, Svayambhu. Regarding the Mantras quoted in the last section of this Sutra, see above, I, 1, 3, 5-7.

 

 

PRASNA I, PATALA 3, SECTION 9.

1. After he has studied the Veda, the bath (which signifies the end of his studentship, is taken by him).

2. We shall explain that (bath).

3. During the northern course of the sun, in the time of the increasing moon, under (the Nakshatra) Rohini, (or) Mrigasiras, (or) Tishya, (or) Uttara

[p. 162]

Phalguni, (or) Hasta, (or) Kitra, or the two Visakhas: under these (Nakshatras) he may take the bath.

4. [*4] He goes to a place near which water is, puts wood on the fire, performs the rites down to the oblations made with the Vyahritis, and puts a piece of Palasa wood on (the fire) with (the verse), 'Let us prepare this song like a chariot, for Gatavedas who deserves it, with our prayer. For his foresight in this assembly is a bliss to us. Agni! Dwelling in thy friendship may we not suffer harm. Svaha!'

5. Then he sacrifices with the Vyahritis as above,

6. [*6] (And another oblation with the verse), 'The threefold age of Gamadagni, Kasyapa's threefold age, the threefold age that belongs to the gods: may that threefold age be mine. Svaha!'

7. (Then follow oblations with the verses), 'This, O Varuna,' &c. (see above, I, 2, 8, 16, down to the end of the Sutra).

8. [*8] After he has served food to the Brahmanas, and has caused them to say, 'An auspicious day! Hail! Good luck!' he discharges himself of his vow by (repeating) these (Mantras), 'Agni, lord of the vow, I have kept the vow.'

9. Having (thus) discharged himself of his vow, he worships the sun with the two (verses), 'Upwards

[p. 163]

that (Gatavedas)' (Taitt. Samh. I, 4, 43, 1), and, 'The bright' (ibid.).

10. [*10] With (the words), '(Loosen) from us thy highest band, Varuna,' he takes off the upper garment which he has worn during his studentship, and puts on another (garment). With (the words), '(Loosen) the lowest (fetter),' (he takes off) the under garment; with (the words), '(Take) away the middle (fetter),' the girdle. With (the words), 'And may we, O Aditya, under thy law (&c.),' (he deposes) his staff. The girdle, the staff, and the black antelope's skin he throws into water, sits down to the west of the fire, facing the east, and touches the razor (with which he is going to be shaven), with (the formula), 'Razor is thy name; the axe is thy father. Adoration to thee! Do no harm to me!'

11. [*11] Having handed over (that razor) to the barber, he touches the water with which his hair is to be moistened, with (the formula), 'Be blissful, (O waters), when we touch you.' [(The barber) then pours together warm and cold water. Having poured warm (water) into cold (water)--]

12. [*12] (The barber) moistens the hair near the right ear with (the words), 'May the waters moisten thee for life, for old age and splendour' (Taitt. Samhita I, 2, 1, 1).

[p. 164]

13. [*13] With (the words), 'Herb! protect him' (Taitt. Samh., loc. cit.), he puts an herb with the point upwards into (the hair).

14. [*14] With (the words), 'Axe! do no harm to him!' (Taitt. Samh., loc. cit.), he touches (that herb) with the razor.

15. With (the words), 'Heard by the gods, I shave that (hair)' (Taitt. Samh., loc. cit.), he shaves him.

16. [*16] With (the formula), 'If thou shavest, O shaver, my hair and my beard with the razor, the wounding, the well-shaped, make our face resplendent, but do not take away our life'--(the student who is going to take the bath), looks at the barber.

17. He has the beard shaven first, then the hair in his arm-pits, then the hair (on his head), then the hair of his body, then (he has) his nails (cut).

18. A person who is kindly disposed (towards the student), gathers the hair, the beard, the hair of the body, and the nails (that have been cut off), in a lump of bull's dung, and buries (that lump of dung) in a cow-stable, or near an Udumbara tree, or in a clump of Darbha grass, with (the words), 'Thus I

[p. 165]

hide the sin of N.N., who belongs to the Gotra N.N.'

19. Having rubbed himself with powder such as is used in bathing, he cleanses his teeth with a stick of Udumbara wood--

Footnotes

162:4 9, 4. Comp. I, 1, 3, 4; Rig-veda I, 94, 1. 'Where the words are used, "He puts wood on the fire" (agnim upasamadhaya), he should prepare the ground by raising it, &c., should carry the fire to that place, should put wood on it, and then he should sacrifice in the fire. Where those words are not used, he should (only) strew grass round the fire which is (already) established in its proper place, and should thus perform the sacrifice.' Matridatta.

162:6 Sankhayana I, 28, 9.

162:8 Comp. I, 2, 7, 25; 8, 7.

163:10 The words quoted in this Sutra are the parts of a Rik which is found in Taittiriya Samhita I, 5, 11, 3.

163:11 The words which I have included in brackets are wanting in some of the MSS., and are not explained in the commentaries. They are doubtless a spurious addition. Comp. Asvalayana I, 57, 6, &c.

163:12 Paraskara II, 1, 9. The same expression dakshinam godanam, of which I have treated there in the note, is used in this Sutra. Comp., besides, Sankhayana-Grihya I, 28, 9; Apastamba-Srauta-sutra [p. 164] X, 5, 8; Satapatha-Br. III, 1, 2, 6. According to Matridatta, there is some difference of opinion between the different teachers as to whether the Mantras for the moistening of the hair and the following rites are to be repeated by the teacher or by the barber.

164:13 Asvalayana I, 17, 8; Paraskara II, 1, 10; Apastamba-Sraut., loc. cit.; Katyayana-Sraut. VII, 2, 10. The parallel texts prescribe that one Kusa blade, or three Kusa blades, should be put into the hair.

164:14 Yagnikadeva in his commentary on Katyayana (loc. cit.) says, kshurenabhinidhaya kshuradharam antarhitatrinasyopari nidhaya.

164:16 Asvalayana I, 17, 16. Comp. also Rig-veda I, 24, 11.

 

 

PATALA 3, SECTION 10.

1. With (the formula), 'Stand in your places for the sake of the enjoyment of food. Stand in your places for the sake of long life. Stand in your places for the sake of holy lustre. May I be blessed with long life, an enjoyer of food, adorned with holy lustre.'

2. Then (the teacher) makes him wash himself with lukewarm water, with the three verses, 'O waters, ye are wholesome' (Taitt. Samh. IV, I, 5, 1), with the four verses, 'The gold-coloured, clean, purifying (waters)' (Taitt. Samh. V, 6, 1), and with the Anuvaka, 'The purifier, the heavenly one' (Taitt. Brahmana I, 4, 8).

3. [*3] Or (instead of performing these rites in the neighbourhood of water) they make an enclosure in a cow-stable and cover it (from all sides); that (the student) enters before sunrise, and in that (enclosure) the whole (ceremony) is performed. 'On that day the sun does not shine upon him,' some say. 'For he who shines (i.e. the sun), shines by the splendour of those who have taken the bath. Therefore the face of a Snataka is, as it were, resplendent (?).'

4. [*4] (His friends or relations) bring him all sorts of

[p. 166]

perfumes, or ground sandal wood; he besprinkles that (with water), and worships the gods by raising his joined hands towards the east, with (the formulas), 'Adoration to Graha (the taker) and to Abhigraha (the seizer)! Adoration to Saka and Gangabha! Adoration to those deities who are seizers!' (Then) he anoints himself with (that salve of sandal wood) with (the verse), 'The scent that dwells with the Apsaras, and the splendour that dwells with the Gandharvas, divine and human scent: may that here enter upon me!'

5. They bring him a pair of (new) garments that have not yet been washed. He besprinkles them (with water) and puts on the under garment with (the formula), 'Thou art Soma's body; protect my body! Thou who art my own body, enter upon me; thou who art a blissful body, enter upon me.' Then he touches water, (puts on) the upper garment with the same (Mantra), and sits down to the west of the fire, facing the east.

6. [*6] They bring him two ear-rings and a perforated pellet of sandal wood or of Badari wood, overlaid with gold (at its aperture); these two things he ties to a Darbha blade, holds them over the fire, and pours over them (into the fire) oblations (of ghee) with (the Mantras),

'May this gold which brings long life and splendour and increase of wealth, and which gets through (all adversities), enter upon me for the sake of long life, of splendour, and of victory. Svaha!

[p. 167]

'(This gold) brings high gain, superiority in battles, superiority in assemblies; it conquers treasures. All perfections unitedly dwell together in this gold. Svaha!

'I have obtained an auspicious name like (the name) of a father of gold. Thus may (the gold) make me shine with golden lustre; (may it make me) beloved among many people; may it make me full of holy lustre. Svaha!

'Make me beloved among the gods; make me beloved with Brahman (i.e. among the Brahmanas), beloved among Vaisyas and Sudras; make me beloved among the kings (i.e. among the Kshatriyas). Svaha!

'This herb is protecting, overcoming, and powerful. May it make me shine with golden lustre; (may it make me) beloved among many people; may it make me full of holy lustre. Svaha!'

7. Having thrice washed (the two ear-rings) in a vessel of water with the same five (Mantras), without the word Svaha, (moving them round in the water) from left to right--

Footnotes

165:3 10, 3. Rephayativa dipyativa. Matridatta. Comp. Apastamba Dharma-sutra II, 6, 14, 13, and Buhler's note, S.B.E., vol. ii, p. 135.

165:4 Comp. above, I, 2, 8, 4.

166:6 Regarding the first Mantra, comp. Vagas. Samhita XXXIV, 50. In the fifth Mantra we ought to read oshadhis trayamana. Comp. below, I, 3, 11, 3; Paraskara I, 13; Atharva-veda VIII, 2, 6.

 

 

PATALA 3, SECTION 11.

1. He puts on the two ear-rings, the right one to his right ear, the left one to his left ear, with (the verse which he repeats for each of the two earrings), 'Virag and Svarag, and the aiding powers that dwell in our house, the prosperity that dwells in the face of royalty: therewith unite me.'

2. [*2] With (the Mantra), 'With the seasons and the combinations of seasons, for the sake of long life, of

[p. 168]

splendour, with the sap that dwells in the year: therewith we make them touch the jaws'--he clasps the two ear-rings.

3. [*3] With (the Mantra), 'This herb is protecting, overcoming, and powerful. May it make me shine with golden lustre; (may it make me) beloved among many people; may it make me full of holy lustre. Thou art not a bond'--he ties the pellet (of wood, mentioned above, Section 10, Sutra 6) to his neck.

4. [*4] He puts on a wreath with the two (verses),

'Beautiful one, elevate thyself to beauty, beautifying my face. Beautify my face and make my fortune increase'--(and),

'(The wreath) which Gamadagni has brought to Sraddha to please her, that I put on (my head) together with fortune and splendour.'

5. [*5] 'The salve coming from the Trikakud (mountain), born on the Himavat, therewith I anoint you (i.e. the eyes), and with fortune and splendour. (I put?) into myself the demon of the mountain (?)'--with (this verse) he anoints himself with Traikakuda salve, (or) if he cannot get that, with some other (salve).

6. With (the verse), 'My mind that has fled away' (Taitt. Samhita VI, 6, 7, 2) he looks into a mirror.

[p. 169]

7. [*7] With (the formula), 'On the impulse of the god,' &c., he takes a staff of reed (which somebody hands him), and with (the formula), 'Thou art the thunderbolt of Indra. O Asvins, protect me!'--he thrice wipes it off, upwards from below.

8. With (the formula), 'Speed! Make speed away from us those who hate us, robbers, creeping things, beasts of prey, Rakshas, Pisakas. Protect us, O staff, from danger that comes from men; protect us from every danger; from all sides destroy the robbers'--(and with the verse), 'Not naked (i.e. covered with bark) thou art born on all trees, a destroyer of foes. Destroy all hosts of enemies from every side like Maghavan (Indra)'--he swings (the staff) three times from left to right over his head.

9. [*9] With (the formula), 'The divine standing-places are you. Do not pinch me'--he steps into the shoes.

10. [*10] With (the formula), 'Pragapati's shelter art thou, the Brahman's covering'--he takes the parasol.

11. [*11] With the verse, 'My staff which fell down in the open air to the ground, that I take up again for the sake of long life, of holiness, of holy lustre'--he takes up his staff, if it has fallen from his hand.

End of the Third Patala.

Footnotes

167:2 11, 2. The end of the Mantra is corrupt. We ought to read, as [p. 168] Dr. Kirste has shown, tena samhanu krinmasi (Av. V, 28, 13). Matridatta says, samgrihnite'pidhanenapidadhati pratigrahasamgrahanayoh samyuktatvad ekapavargatvat.

168:3 The Mantra, with the exception of the last words, is identical with the last verse of Section 10, Sutra 6. Here the MSS. again have oshadhe for oshadhis.

168:4 Comp. Atharva-veda VI, 137: yam Gamadagnir akhanad duhitre, &c.; Paraskara II, 6, 23.

168:5 Regarding the Traikakuda salve, comp. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 69, and see Atharva-veda IV, 9, 9.

169:7 He takes the staff with the well-known Savitra formula, 'On the impulse of the god Savitri . . . I take thee.'

169:9 Asvalayana III, 8, 19; Paraskara II, 6, 30.

169:10 Asvalayana III, 8, 19; Paraskara II, 6, 29.

169:11 Instead of yamayushe I propose to read ayushe. Comp. Paraskara II, 2, 12.

 

[p. 170]

 

PRASNA I, PATALA 4, SECTION 12.

1. They bring him a chariot, (or) a horse, or an elephant.

2. [*2] 'Thou art the (Saman called) Rathantara; thou art the Vamadevya; thou art the Brihat;' the (verse), 'The two Ankas, the two Nyankas' (Taitt. Samhita I, 7, 7, 2); (the verse), 'May this your chariot, O Asvins, not suffer damage, neither in pain nor in joy. May it make its way without damage, dispersing those who infest us;' (and the formula), 'Here is holding, here is keeping asunder; here is enjoyment, here may it enjoy itself:' with (these texts) he ascends the chariot, if he enters (the village) on a chariot.

3. [*3] 'A horse art thou, a steed art thou'--with these eleven 'horses' names' (Taitt. Samh. VII, 1, 12) (he mounts) the horse, if (he intends to enter the village) on horseback.

4. [*4] With (the formula), 'With Indra's thunderbolt I bestride thee; carry (me); carry the time; carry me forward to bliss. An elephant art thou. The elephant's glory art thou. The elephant's splendour art thou. May I become endowed with the elephant's glory, with the elephant's splendour'--(he mounts) the elephant, if (he intends to proceed to the village) on it.

[p. 171]

5. [*5] He goes to a place where they will do honour to him.

6. With (the verse), 'May the quarters (of the horizon) stream together with me; may all delight assemble (here). May all wishes that are dear to us, come near unto us; may (our) dear (wishes) stream towards us'--he worships the quarters of the horizon.

7. While approaching the person who is going to do honour to him, he looks at him with (the words), 'Glory art thou; may I become glory with thee.'

8. Then (the host who is going to offer the Argha reception to the Snataka), having prepared the dwelling-place (for his reception), says to him, 'The Argha (will be offered)!'

9. (The guest) replies, 'Do so!'

10. [*10] They prepare for him (the Madhuparka or 'honey mixture') consisting of three or of five substances.

11. The three substances are, curds, honey, and ghee.

12. The five substances are, curds, honey, ghee, water, and ground grains.

13. Having poured curds into a brass vessel, he pours honey into it, (and then the other substances stated above).

14. [*14] Having poured (those substances) into a smaller vessel, and having covered it with a larger (cover than the vessel is), (the host) makes (the guest) accept (the following things) separately, one after the other, viz. a bunch of grass (to sit down on),

[p. 172]

water for washing the feet, the Argha water, water for sipping, and the honey-mixture (Madhuparka).

15. [*15] Going after (the single objects which are brought to the guest, the host) in a faultless, not faltering (?) voice, announces (each of those objects to the guest).

16. The bunch of grass (he announces by three times saying), 'The bunch of grass!'

17. [*17] (The guest) sits down thereon facing the east, with (the formula), 'A giver of royal power art thou, a teacher's seat; may I not withdraw from thee.'

18. (The host) then utters to him the announcement, 'The water for washing the feet!'

19. [*19] With that (water) a Sudra or a Sudra woman washes his feet; the left foot first for a Brahmana, the right for a person of the two other castes.

Footnotes

170:2 12, 2. Comp. Paraskara III, 14, 3-6.

170:3 In this Sutra three 'horses' names' are given as the Pratika of the Yagus quoted, 'Thou art asva, thou art haya, thou art maya.' Matridatta observes that the third of them is not found in the Taittiriya Samhita, which gives only ten, and not eleven, horses' names.

170:4 Paraskara III, 15, 1 seq.

171:5 Asvalayana III, 9, 3; Sankhayana III, 1, 14.

171:10 10 seq. Paraskara I, 3, 5; Asvalayana I, 24, 5 seq.

171:14 Paraskara, loc. cit.; Asvalayana, loc. cit.,  section 7.

172:15 The text is corrupt and the translation very doubtful. The MSS. have, anusamvrigina so'nupakinkaya vaka. Matridatta's note, which is also very corrupt, runs thus: anusamvragina saha kurkadina dravyena tad agratah kritvanuganta. anusamvrigineti (sic: anugakhamnnusamv degrees, Dr. Kielhorn's MS.) pramadapathah. sampradatanupakinkaya na vidyata upaghatika vag yasya [yasya, Dr. K.'s MS.] seyam anupakinka vak . . . kekid anusamvrigineti (anusamvragineti, Dr. Kirste) pathantaram kritva vagviseshanam ikkhanti yatha mrishta vak samskrita vak tatha keti. apare yathapatham evartham ikkhanti.--Perhaps we may correct, anusamvriginayanupakinkaya vaka. Comp. below, I, 4, 13, 16.

172:17 See above, I, 2, 6, 9.

172:19 Paraskara I, 3, 10. 11; Asvalayana I, 24, 11.

 

 

PATALA 4, SECTION 13.

1. [*1] With (the formula), 'The milk of Virag art thou. May the milk of Padya Virag (dwell) in me'--(the guest) touches the hands of the person that

[p. 173]

washes his feet, and then he touches himself with (the formula), 'May in me dwell brilliancy, energy, strength, life, renown, splendour, glory, power!'

2. (The host) then makes to him the announcement, 'The Argha water!'

3. [*3] (The guest) accepts it with (the formula), 'Thou camest to me with glory. Unite me with brilliancy, splendour, and milk. Make me beloved by all creatures, the lord of cattle.'

4. [*4] 'To the ocean I send you, the imperishable (waters); go back to your source. May I not suffer loss in my offspring. May my sap not be shed'--this (verse the guest) recites over the remainder (of the Argha water), when it is poured out (by the person who had offered it to him).

5. Then he utters to him the announcement, 'The water for sipping!'

6. [*6] With (the formula), 'Thou art the first layer for Ambrosia,' he sips water.

7. Then he utters to him the announcement, 'The honey-mixture!'

8. [*8] He accepts that with both hands with the Savitra (formula), and places it on the ground with (the formula), 'I place thee on the navel of the earth in the abode of Ida.' He mixes (the different substances) three times from left to right with his thumb and his fourth finger, with (the formula), 'What is the honied, highest form of honey which consists in the enjoyment of food, by that honied,

[p. 174]

highest form of honey may I become highest, honied, and an enjoyer of food.' He partakes of it three times with (the formula), 'I eat thee for the sake of brilliancy, of luck, of glory, of power, and of the enjoyment of food,' and gives the remainder to a person who is kindly disposed towards him.

9. [*9] Or he may eat the whole (Madhuparka). Then he sips water with (the formula), 'Thou art the covering of Ambrosia.'

10. [*10] Then he utters to him the announcement, 'The cow!'

11. That (cow) is either killed or let loose.

12. If he chooses to let it loose, (he murmurs), 'This cow will become a milch cow.

'The mother of the Rudras, the daughter of the Vasus, the sister of the Adityas, the navel of immortality. To the people who understand me, I say, "Do not kill the guiltless cow, which is Aditi."

'Let it drink water! Let it eat grass'--

(And) gives order (to the people), 'Om! Let it loose.'

13. [*13] If it shall be killed, (he says), 'A cow art thou; sin is driven away from thee. Drive away my sin and the sin of N.N.! Kill ye him whoever hates me. He is killed whosoever hates me. Make (the cow) ready!'

14. [*14] If (the cow) is let loose, a meal is prepared with other meat, and he announces it (to the guest) in the words, 'It is ready!'

[p. 175]

15. He replies, 'It is well prepared; it is the Virag; it is food. May it not fail! May I obtain it! May it give me strength! It is well prepared!'--and adds, 'Give food to the Brahmanas!'

16. [*16] After those (Brahmanas) have eaten, (the host) orders blameless (?) food to be brought to him (i.e. to the guest).

17. He accepts that with (the formula), 'May the heaven give it to thee; may the earth accept it. May the earth give it to thee; may breath accept it. May breath eat thee; may breath drink thee.'

18. With (the verse), 'May Indra and Agni bestow vigour on me' (Taitt. Samh. III, 3, 3, 3) he eats as much as he likes, and gives the remainder to a person who is kindly disposed towards him.

19. If he desires that somebody may not be estranged from him, he should sip water with (the Mantra), 'Whereon the past and the future and all worlds rest, therewith I take hold of thee; I (take. hold) of thee; through the Brahman I take hold of thee for myself, N.N.!'--

Footnotes

172:1 13, 1. Comp. Sankhayana III, 7, 5, &c.

173:3 Paraskara I, 3, 15.

173:4 Paraskara I, 3, 14.

173:6 Asvalayana I, 21, 13.

173:8 Paraskara I, 3, 18 seq.; Asvalayana I, 21, 15 seq.--The Savitra formula is, 'On the impulse of the god Savitri . . . I take thee.' Comp. above, I, 3, 11, 7.

174:9 Asvalayana I, 21, 27. 28.

174:10 10 seq. Asvalayana I, 21, 30 seq.; Paraskara I, 3, 26 seq.; Sankhayana II, 15, 2. 3 note; Gobhila IV, 10, 18 seq.

174:13 N.N., of course, means the host's name.

174:14 14 seq. Comp. Gobhila I, 3, 16 seq.; Apastamba II, 2, 3, 11.

175:16 The meaning of anusamvriginam (comp. above, I, 4, 12, 15) is uncertain. See the commentary, p. 120 of Dr. Kirste's edition.

 

 

PATALA 4, SECTION 14.

1. And should, after that person has eaten, seize his right hand,

2. [*2] If he wishes that one of his companions, or a pupil, or a servant should faithfully remain with him and not go away, he should bathe in the morning, should put on clean garments, should show

[p. 176]

patience (with that servant, &c.) during the day, should speak (only) with Brahmanas, and by night he should go to the dwelling-place of that person, should make water into a horn of a living animal, and should three times walk round his dwelling-place, sprinkling (his urine) round it, with (the Mantra), 'From the mountain (I sever?) thee, from thy brother, from thy sister, from all thy relations. parishidah kleshyati (i.e. kvaishyasi?) sasvat parikupilena samkramenavikkhida, ulena parimidho'si parimidho'sy ulena.'

3. He puts down the horn of the living animal in a place which is generally accessible.

4. [*4] One whose companions, pupils, or servants use to run away, should rebuke them with (the Mantra), 'May he who calls hither (?), call you hither! He who brings back, has brought you back (?). May the rebuke of Indra always rebuke you. If you, who worship your own deceit, despise me (?), . . . . may Indra bind you with his bond, and may he drive you back again to me.'

[p. 177]

5. Then he enters his house, puts a piece of Sidhraka wood on (the fire), and sacrifices with the 'on-drawing verse,' 'Back-bringer, bring them back' (Taitt. Samh. III, 3, 10, 1).

6. Now (we shall explain) how one should guard his wife.

7. [*7] One whose wife has a paramour, should grind big centipedes (?) to powder, and should insert (that powder), while his wife is sleeping, into her secret parts, with the Mantra, 'Indra. . . . from other men than me.'

8. Now (follows the sacrifice for procuring) prosperity in trade.

9. He cuts off (some portion) from (every) article of trade and sacrifices it--

Footnotes

175:2 14, 2. Matridatta: 'The description of the Samavartana is finished. [p. 176] Now some ceremonies connected with special wishes of the person who has performed the Samavartana and has settled in a house, will be described.' In my opinion, it would be more correct to consider Sutra 18 of the preceding section as the last of the aphorisms that regard the Samavartana, With Sutra 2 compare Paraskara III, 7; Apastamba VIII, 23, 6. It seems impossible to attempt to translate the hopelessly corrupt last lines of the Mantra.

176:4 A part of this Mantra also is most corrupt. In the first line I propose to write, nivarto vo nyavivritat. With the last line comp. Paraskara III, 7, 3. I think that the text of Paraskara should be corrected in the following way: pari tva hvalano hvalan nivartas tva nyavivritat, indrah pasena sitva tva mahyam . . . (three syllables) anayet. The Apastambiya Mantrapatha, according to Dr. Winternitz's copy, gives the following text: anupohvad anuhvayo vivartto [p. 177] vo nyavivridhat. aindrah parikroso to vah parikrosatu sarvatah. yadi mam atimanyadva a deva devavattara indrah pasena sitkva vo mahyam id vasam anayat svaha. Comp. Prof. Pischel's remarks, Philologische Abhandlungen, Martin Hertz zum siebzigsten Geburtstage von ehemaligen Schulern dargebracht (Berlin, 1888), p. 69 seq.

177:7 On sthura dridha[h] Matridatta says, sthura dridhah sthurah satapadyah. A part of the Mantra is untranslatable on account of the very corrupt condition of the text. The reading given by most of the MSS. is, Indraya yasya sepham alikam anyebhyah purushebhyo'nyatra mat. The Apastambiya Mantrapatha reads, indrayasya phaligam anyebhyah purushebhyonyatra mat. The meaning very probably is that Indra is invoked to keep away from the woman the sepha of all other men except her husband's.

 

 

PATALA 4, SECTION 15.

1. [*1] With (the verse), 'If we trade, O gods, trying by our wealth to acquire (new) wealth, O gods, may

[p. 178]

Soma thereon bestow splendour, Agni, Indra, Brihaspati, and Isana. Svaha!'

2. Now (follows) the way for appeasing anger.

3. [*3] He addresses the angry person with (the verses), 'The power of wrath that dwells here on thy forehead, destroying thy enemy (?), may the chaste, wise gods take that away.

'If thou shootest, as it were, the thought dwelling in thy face, upwards to thy forehead, I loosen the anger of thy heart like the bow-string of an archer.

'Day, heaven, and earth: we appease thy anger, as the womb of a she-mule (cannot conceive).'

4. Now (follows) the way for obtaining the victory in disputes.

5. [*5] He puts wood on the fire at night-time in an inner apartment, performs the rites down to the Vyahriti oblations, and sacrifices small grains mixed with A ya, with (the verse), 'Tongueless one, thou who art without a tongue! I drive thee away through my sacrifice, so that I may gain the victory in the dispute, and that N.N. may be defeated by me. Svaha!'

6. [*6] Then in the presence (of his adversary), turned towards him, he murmurs (the verses), 'I take away the speech from thy mouth, (the speech) that dwells in thy mind, (the speech) from thy heart. Out of every limb I take thy speech. Wheresoever thy speech dwells, thence I take it away.

[p. 179]

'Rudra with the dark hair-lock! Hero! At every contest strike down this my adversary, as a tree (is struck down) by a thunderbolt.

'Be defeated, be conquered, when thou speakest. Sink down under the earth, when thou speakest, struck down by me irresistibly (?) with the hammer of . . . (?). That is true what I speak. Fall down, inferior to me, N.N.!'

7.  He touches the assembly-hall (in which the contest is going on), and murmurs, 'The golden-armed, blessed (goddess), whose eyes are not faint, who is decked with ornaments, seated in the midst of the gods, has spoken for my good. Svaha!'

8.  'For me have the high ones and the low ones, for me has this wide earth, for me have Agni and Indra accomplished my divine aim'--with (this verse) he looks at the assembly, and murmurs (it) turned towards (the assembly).

End of the Fourth Patala.

Footnotes

177:1 15, 1. Comp. Atharva-veda III, 15, 5; Gobhila IV, 8, 19.

178:3 Paraskara III, 13, 5. Possibly we ought to correct mriddhasya into mridhrasya. Avadyam ought to be ava gyam; see Atharva-veda VI, 42, 1.

178:5 The commentary explains kanas (small grains) as oleander (karavira) seeds.

178:6 Comp. Paraskara III, 13, 6. The text of the Mantras is corrupt.

 

 

PRASNA I, PATALA 5, SECTION 16. [*16]

1. When he has first seen the new moon, he sips water, and holding (a pot of) water (in his hands) he worships (the moon) with the four (verses), 'Increase' (Taitt. Samh. I, 4, 32), 'May thy milk' (ibid. IV, 2, 7, 4), 'New and new again (the moon) becomes, being born' (ibid. II, 4, 14, 1), 'That Soma which the Adityas make swell' (ibid. II, 4, 14, 1).

[p. 180]

2. [*2] When he has yawned, he murmurs, '(May) will and insight (dwell) in me.'

3. [*3] If the skirt (of his garment) is blown upon him (by the wind), he murmurs, 'A skirt art thou. Thou art not a thunderbolt. Adoration be to thee. Do no haft to me.'

4. He should tear off a thread (from that skirt) and should blow it away with his mouth.

5. [*5] If a bird has befouled him with its excrements, he murmurs, 'The birds that timidly fly together with the destroyers, shall pour out on me happy, blissful splendour and vigour.'

Then let him wipe off that (dirt) with something else than his hand, and let him wash himself with water.

6. [*6] 'From the sky, from the wide air a drop of water has fallen down on me, bringing luck. With my senses, with my mind I have united myself, protected by the prayer that is brought forth by the righteous ones'--this (verse) he should murmur, if a drop of water unexpectedly falls down on him.

7. [*7] 'If a fruit has fallen down from the top of a tree, or from the air, it is Vayu (who has made it fall). Where it has touched our bodies or the garment, (there) may the waters drive away destruction'--this (verse) he should murmur, if a fruit unexpectedly falls down on him.

8. [*8] 'Adoration to him who dwells at the cross-roads,

[p. 181]

whose arrow is the wind, to Rudra! Adoration to Rudra who dwells at the cross-roads!'--this (formula) he murmurs when he comes to a cross-road;

9. 'Adoration to him who dwells among cattle, whose arrow is the wind, to Rudra! Adoration to Rudra who dwells among cattle!'--thus at a dung-heap;

10. 'Adoration to him who dwells among the serpents, whose arrow is the wind, to Rudra! Adoration to Rudra who dwells among the serpents!'--thus at a place that is frequented by serpents.

11. 'Adoration to him who dwells in the air, whose arrow is the wind, to Rudra! Adoration to Rudra who dwells in the air!'--this (formula) let him murmur, if overtaken by a tornado.

12. 'Adoration to him who dwells in the waters, whose arrow is the wind, to Rudra! Adoration to Rudra who dwells in the waters!'--this (formula) he murmurs when plunging into a river which is full of water.

13. 'Adoration to him who dwells there, whose arrow is the wind, to Rudra! Adoration to Rudra who dwells there!'--this (formula) he murmurs when approaching a beautiful place, a sacrificial site, or a big tree.

14. [*14] If the sun rises whilst he is sleeping, he shall fast that day and shall stand silent during that day;

15. The same during the night, if the sun sets whilst he sleeps.

16. [*16] Let him not touch a sacrificial post. By

[p. 182]

touching it, he would bring upon himself (the guilt of) whatever faults have been committed at that sacrifice. If he touches one (sacrificial post), he should say, 'This is thy wind;' if two (posts), 'These are thy two winds;' if many (posts), 'These are thy winds.'

17. [*17] 'The voices that are heard after us (?) and around us, the praise that is heard, and the voices of the birds, the deer's running (?) athwart: that we fear (?) from our enemies'--this (verse) he murmurs when setting out on a road.

18. [*18] 'Like an Udgatri, O bird, thou singest the Saman; like a Brahman's son thou recitest thy hymn, when the Soma is pressed.

'A blessing on us, O bird; bring us luck and be kind towards us!'--(This Mantra) he murmurs against an inauspicious bird;

19. [*19] 'If thou raisest thy divine voice, entering upon living beings, drive away our enemies by thy voice. O death, lead them to death!'--(thus) against a solitary jackal.

20. Then he throws before the (jackal, as it were), a fire-brand that burns at both ends, towards that region (in which the jackal's voice is heard), with (the words), 'Fire! Speak to the fire! Death! Speak to the death!' Then he touches water,

[p. 183]

21. And worships (the jackal) with the Anuvaka, 'Thou art mighty, thou carriest away' (Taitt. Samhita I, 3, 3).

Footnotes

179:7 Probably we should write agitakshi.

179:8 Matridatta says, prativadinam abhigapaty eva.

179:16 This chapter contains different Prayaskittas.

180:2 Asvalayana-Grihya. III, 6, 7.

180:3 Paraskara III, 15, 17.

180:5 I propose to read, nirrithaih saha.

180:6 Atharva-veda VI, 124, 1. Read sukritam kritena.

180:7 Atharva-veda VI, 124, 2. The Atharva-veda shows the way to correct the corrupt third Pada.

180:8 8 seq. Comp. Paraskara III, 15, 7 seq.

181:14 14, 15. Apastamba II, 5, 1 2, 13. 14; Gobhila III, 3, 34, &c.

181:16 Gobhila III, 3, 34. Should it be esha te vayur iti?

182:17 The Mantra is very corrupt. Perhaps anihutam should be corrected into anuhutam, which is the reading of the Apastambiya Mantrapatha. In the last Pada bhayamasi is corrupt; the meaning seems to be, 'that we (avert from ourselves and) turn it to our enemies.' Probably Dr. Kirste is right in reading bhagamasi.

182:18 Comp. Rig-veda II, 43, 2.

182:19 As to ekasrika, 'solitary jackal,' comp. Buhler's note on Apastamba I, 3, 10, 17 (S.B.E., II, 38). Matridatta says, srigalo mrigasabdam kurvana ekasrika ity ukyate.

 

 

PATALA 5, SECTION 17.

1. A she-wolf (he addresses) with (the verse), 'Whether incited by others or whether on its own accord the Bhayedaka (? Bhayodaka, var. lect.) utters this cry, may Indra and Agni, united with Brahman, render it blissful to us in our house.'

2. [*2] A bird (he addresses) with (the verse), 'Thou fliest, stretching out thy legs; the left eye . . .; may nothing here suffer harm (through thee);'

3. An owl (pingala) with (the verse), 'The bird with the golden wings flies to the abode of the gods. Flying round the village from left to right portend us luck by thy cry, O owl!'

4. [*4] 'May my faculties return into me; may life return, prosperity return; may the divine power return into me; may my goods return to me.

'And may these fires that are stationed on the (altars called) Dhishnyas, be in good order here, each in its right place. Svaha!

'My self has returned, life has returned to me; breath has returned, design has returned to me. (Agni) Vaisvanara, grown strong with his rays, may he dwell in my mind, the standard of immortality. Svaha!

'The food which is eaten in the evening, that does

[p. 184]

not satiate in the morning him whom hunger assails. May all that (which we have seen in our dreams), do no harm to us, for it has not been seen by day. To Day svaha!'--with these (verses) he sacrifices sesamum seeds mixed with Agya, if he has seen a bad dream.

5. [*5] Now the following expiations for portents are prescribed. A dove sits down on the hearth, or the bees make honey in his house, or a cow (that is not a calf) sucks another cow, or a post puts forth shoots, or an anthill has arisen (in his house): cases like these (require the following expiation):

6. [*6] He should bathe in the morning, should put on clean garments, should show patience (with everybody) during the day, and should speak (only) with Brahmanas. Having put wood on the fire in an inner apartment, and having performed the rites down to the Vyahriti oblations, he sacrifices with (the verses), 'This, O Varuna,' &c. (see above I, 2, 8, 16, down to the end of the Sutra). Then he serves food to the Brahmanas and causes them to say, 'An auspicious day! Hail! Good luck!

Footnotes

183:2 17, 2. The commentary explains sakuni (bird) by dhvanksha (crow). In the translation of the Mantra (Taitt. Ar. IV, 35) I have left out the unintelligible words nipepi ka. The way to correct the last Pada is shown by Atharva-veda VI, 57, 3; X, 5, 23.

183:4 Comp. Asvalayana-Grihya III, 6, 8.

184:5 Sankhayana V, 5. 8. 11; Asvalayana III, 7, &c. Kuptva is corrupt; we should expect a locative. We ought to correct kuptvam, as Dr. Kirste has observed, comp. Apastamba-Grihya VIII, 23, 9.

184:6 Comp. above, I, 4, 14, 2; 15, 5; I, 2, 8, 16; I, 3, 9, 7. 8.

 

 

PATALA 5, SECTION 18.

1. [*1] 'May Indra and Agni make you go. May the two Asvins protect you. Brihaspati is your herdsman. May Pushan drive you back again'--

[p. 185]

this (verse) he recites over the cows when they go away (to their pasture-grounds), and (the verse), 'May Pushan go after our cows' (Taitt. Samh. IV, 1, 11, 2).

2. With (the verse), 'These cows that have come hither, free from disease and prolific, may they swim (full of wealth) like rivers; may they pour out (wealth), as (rivers discharge their floods) into the ocean'--he looks at the cows, when they are coming back.

3. [*3] With (the formula), 'You are a stand at rest; may I (?) become your stand at rest. You are immovable. Do not move from me. May I not move from you, the blessed ones'--(he looks at them) when they are standing still.

4. With (the formula), 'I see you full of sap. Full of sap you shall see me'--(he looks at them) when they are gone into the stable, and with (the formula), 'May I be prosperous through your thousandfold prospering.'

5. [*5] Then having put wood on the fire amid the cows, and having performed the rites down to the Vyahriti (oblations), he makes oblations of milk with (the verses),

'Blaze brightly, O Gatavedas, driving destruction away from me. Bring me cattle and maintenance from all quarters of the heaven. Svaha!

'May Gatavedas do no harm to us, to cows and horses, to men and to all that moves. Come hither,

[p. 186]

Agni, fearlessly; make me attain to welfare! Svaha!'--

And with (the two verses), 'This is the influx of the waters,' and 'Adoration to thee, the rapid one, the shining one' (Taitt. Samh. IV, 6, 1, 3).

6. Then follow oblations with the verses), 'This, O Varuna' (&c.; see I, 2, 8, 16, down to the end of the Sutra).

End of the Fifth Patala.

Footnotes

184:1 18, 1 seq. Comp. Sankhayana III, 9; Gobhila III, 6; Asvalayana II, 10.

185:3 The Mantra is very corrupt. I think it ought to be corrected somehow in the following way: samstha stha samstha vo bhtuyasam akyuta stha ma mak kyodhvam maham bhavatibhyas kyoshi. Comp. also Dr. Kirste's note.

185:5 In the second verse I propose to change abibhrad into [p. 186] abibhyad; comp. Atharva-veda XIX, 65, 1: ava tam gahi harasa Gatavedo'bibhyad ugro' rkisha divam a roha surya. The last words of this verse should be sriyam ma pratipadaya, or something similar.

 

 

PRASNA I, PATALA 6, SECTION 19.

1. After he has returned from the teacher's house, he should support his father and mother.

2. [*2] With their permission he should take a wife belonging to the same caste and country, a 'naked' girl, a virgin who should belong to a different Gotra (from her husband's).

3. [*3] Whatever he intends to do (for instance, taking a wife), he should do on an auspicious day only, during one of the following five spaces of time, viz. in the morning, the forenoon, at midday, in the afternoon, or in the evening.

[p. 187]

4. [*4] Having put wood on the fire, and having performed (the preparatory rites) down to the laying of (three) branches round (the fire, the bridegroom) looks at the bride who is led to him, with (the verse), 'Auspicious ornaments does this woman wear. Come up to her and behold her. Having brought lack to her, go away back to your houses.'

5. To the south of the bridegroom the bride sits down.

6. [*6] After she has sipped water, she touches him, and he sprinkles (water) round (the fire) as above.

7. [*7] After he has performed the rites down to the oblations made with the Vyahritis, he sacrifices with (the following Mantras),

'May Agni come hither, the first of gods. May he release the offspring of this wife from the fetter of death. That may this king Varuna grant, that this wife may not weep over distress (falling to her lot) through her sons. Svaha!

'May Agni Garhapatya protect this woman. May he lead her offspring to old age. With fertile womb may she be the mother of living children. May she experience delight in her sons. Svaha!

'May no noise that comes from thee, arise in the house by night. May the (she-goblins called) the weeping ones take their abode in another (woman)

[p. 188]

than thee. Mayst thou not be beaten at thy breast by (the she-goblin) Vikesi ("the rough-haired one"). May thy husband live, and mayst thou shine in thy husband's world, beholding thy genial offspring! Svaha!

'May Heaven protect thy back, Vayu thy thighs, and the two Asvins thy breast. May Savitri protect thy suckling sons. Until the garment is put on (thy sons?), may Brihaspati guard (them?), and the Visve devas afterwards. Svaha!

'Childlessness, the death of sons, evil, and distress, I take (from thee), as a wreath (is taken) from the head, and (like a wreath) I put all evil on (the head of) our foes. Svaha!

'With this well-disposed prayer which the gods have created, I kill the Pisakas that dwell in thy womb. The flesh-devouring death-bringers I cast down. May thy sons live to old age. Svaha!'

8. After he has sacrificed with (the verses), 'This, O Varuna,' 'For this I entreat thee,' 'Thou Agni,' Thus thou, Agni,' 'Thou, Agni, art quick,' 'Pragapati'--he makes her tread on a stone, with (the verse), 'Tread on this stone; like a stone be firm. Destroy those who seek to do thee harm; overcome thy enemies.'

9. To the west of the fire he strews two layers of northward-pointed Darbha grass, the one more to the west, the other more to the east. On these both (the bridegroom and the bride) station themselves, the one more to the west, the other more to the east.

 

8. See above, I, 1, 3, 5; I, 1, 4, 1.

Footnotes

186:2 19, 2. sagatam savarnam samanabhiganam ka. Matridatta. As to the meaning of 'a naked girl,' (i.e. a girl who has not yet the monthly illness), comp. Gobhila III, 4, 6 and note.

186:3 According to Matridatta, 'morning' means one Nadika before and one Nadika after sunrise; 'forenoon' means one Nadika before and one Nadika after the moment at which the first quarter of the day has elapsed; and thus each of the other three day-times [p. 187] is understood to comprise two Nadikas. As the whole day consists of sixty Nadikas, it is the sixth part of the day (= 10 Nadikas) which is considered as auspicious for such purposes as taking a wife.

187:4 See I, 1, 2, 1 seq. Rig-veda X, 85, 33; Paraskara I, 8, 9, &c.

187:6 See I, 1, 2, 7 seq.

187:7 Paraskara I, 6, 11. With the third verse comp. Atharva-veda XI, 9, 14.

 

[p. 189]

 

PRASNA I, PATALA 6, SECTION 20.

1. [*1] Facing the east, while she faces the west, or facing the west, while she faces the east, he should seize her hand. If he desires to generate male children, let him seize her thumb; if he desires (to generate) female children, her other fingers; if he desires (to generate) both (male and female children), let him seize the thumb together with the other fingers, (so as to seize the hand) up to the hairs (on the hair-side of the hand).

(He should do so with the two Mantras),

'Sarasvati! Promote this (our undertaking), O gracious one, rich in studs, thou whom we sing first of all that is.

'I seize thy hand that we may be blessed with offspring, that thou mayst live to old age with me, thy husband. Bhaga, Aryaman, Savitri, Purandhi, the gods have given thee to me that we may rule our house.'

2. [*2] He makes her turn round, from left to right, so that she faces the west, and recites over her (the following texts),

'With no evil eye, not bringing death to thy husband, bring luck to the cattle, be full of joy and

[p. 190]

vigour. Give birth to living children, give birth to heroes, be friendly. Bring us luck, to men and animals.

'Thus, Pushan, lead her to us, the highly blessed one, into whom men pour forth their sperm, ya na uru usati visrayatai (read, visrayatai), yasyam usantah praharema sepam.

'Soma has acquired thee first (as his wife); after him the Gandharva has acquired thee. Thy third husband is Agni; the fourth am I, thy human husband.

'Soma has given her to the Gandharva; the Gandharva has given her to Agni. Agni gives me cattle and children, and thee besides.

'This am I, that art thou; the heaven I, the earth thou; the Saman I, the Rik thou. Come! Let us join together. Let us unite our sperm that we may generate a male child, a son, for the sake of the increase of wealth, of blessed offspring, of strength.

'Bountiful Indra, bless this woman with sons and with a happy lot. Give her ten sons; let her husband be the eleventh.'

3. [*3] After he has made her sit down in her proper place (see Sutra 5 of the preceding section), and has sprinkled Agya into her joined hands, he twice pours fried grain into them, with (the verse), 'This grain I pour (into thy hands): may it bring prosperity to me, and may it unite thee (with me). May this Agni grant us that.'

[p. 191]

4. After he has sprinkled (Agya) over (the grain in her hands), he sacrifices (the grain) with her joined hands (which he seizes), with (the verse), 'This woman, strewing grain into the fire, prays thus, "May my husband live long; may my relations be prosperous. Svaha!"'

5. [*5] Having made her rise with (the verse which she recites), 'Up! with life' (Taitt. Samh. I, 2, 8, 1), and having circumambulated the fire (with her) so that their right sides are turned towards it, with (the verse), 'May we find our way with thee through all hostile powers, as through streams of water'--he pours fried grain (into her hands, and sacrifices them), as before.

6. Having circumambulated (the fire) a second time, he pours fried grain (into her hands, and sacrifices them), as before.

7. Having circumambulated (the fire) a third time, he sacrifices to (Agni) Svishtakrit.

8. [*8] Here some add as subordinate oblations the Gaya, Abhyatana, and Rashtrabhrit (oblations) as above.

9. [*9] To the west of the fire he makes her step forward in an easterly or a northerly direction the (seven) 'steps of Vishnu.'

10. He says to her, 'Step forward with the right (foot) and follow with the left. Do not put the left (foot) before the right.'

Footnotes

189:1 20, 1. Sankhayana I, 13, 2; Asvalayana I, 7, 3 seq., &c. The text of the first Mantra ought to be corrected according to Paraskara I, 7, 2; in the second Mantra we ought to read yathasah instead of yathasat; comp. Rig-veda X, 85, 36; Paraskara I, 6, 3. The bridegroom and the bride, of course, are to face each other; thus, if the bridegroom stands on the eastern layer of grass (Sutra 9 of the preceding section), he is to face the west; if on the western, he is to face the east.

189:2 The words, agrena dakshinam amsam . . . abhyavartya, evidently have the same meaning which is expressed elsewhere (Sankhayana [p. 190] II, 3, 2), dakshinam bahum anvavritya. With the first Mantra comp. Rig-veda X, 85, 44; Paraskara I, 4, 16; with the second, Rig-veda, loc. cit., 37; Paraskara, loc. cit.; with the following ones, Rig-veda X, 85, 40. 41. 45; Paraskara I, 4, 16; 6, 3, &c.

190:3 3 seq. Comp. Sankhayana I, 13, 15 seq.

191:5 Comp. above, I, 2, 7, 13; Rig-veda II, 7, 3.

191:8 Comp. I, 2, 8, 16.

191:9 9 seq. Comp. Gobhila II, 2, 11 seq.; Sankhayana I, 14, 5 seq.

 

[p. 192]

  

PATALA 6, SECTION 21.

1. (He makes her step forward, and goes with her himself), with (the Mantras), 'One (step) for sap, may Vishnu go after thee; two (steps) for juice, may Vishnu go after thee; three (steps) for vows, may Vishnu go after thee; four (steps) for comfort, may Vishnu go after thee; five (steps) for cattle, may Vishnu go after thee; six (steps) for the prospering of wealth, may Vishnu go after thee; seven (steps) for the sevenfold Hotriship, may Vishnu go after thee.'

2. After the seventh step he makes her abide (in that position) and murmurs, 'With seven steps we have become friends. May I attain to friendship with thee. May I not be separated from thy friendship. Mayst thou not be separated from my friendship.'

3. [*3] He then puts his right foot on her right foot, moves his right hand down gradually over her right shoulder, and touches the place of her heart as above,

4. [*4] And the place of her navel with (the formula), 'Thou art the knot of all breath; do not loosen thyself.'

5. [*5] After he has made her sit down to the west of the fire, so that she faces the east, he stands to the east (of his bride), facing the west, and besprinkles her with water, with the three verses, 'O waters, ye are wholesome' (Taitt. Samh. IV, I, 5, 1), with the four verses, 'The gold-coloured, clean, purifying waters' (V, 6, 1), and with the Anuvaka, 'The purifier, the heavenly one' (Taitt. Brahmana I, 4, 8).

[p. 193]

6. [*6] Now they pour seeds (of rice, &c.) on (the heads of the bridegroom and bride).

End of the Sixth Patala.

Footnotes

192:3 21, 3. See above, I, 2, 5, 11.

192:4 See above, I, 2, 5, 12.

192:5 Comp. I, 3, 10, 2.

193:6 Matridatta explains adhisrayanti by vapanti gayapatyoh sirasi kshipanti.

 

 

PRASNA I, PATALA 7, SECTION 22.

1. Then they let her depart (in a vehicle from her father's house), or they let her be taken away.

2. Having put (the fire into a vessel) they carry that (nuptial) fire behind (the newly-married couple).

3. It should be kept constantly.

4. [*4] If it goes out, (a new fire) should be kindled by attrition, or it should be fetched from the house of a Srotriya.

5. Besides, if (the fire) goes out, the wife or the husband should fast.

6. When (the bridegroom with his bride) has come to his house, he says to her, 'Cross (the threshold) with thy right foot first; do not stand on the threshold.'

7. In the hall, in its easterly part, he puts down the fire and puts wood on it.

8. To the west of the fire he spreads out a red bull's skin with the neck to the east, with the hair outside.

[p. 194]

9. [*9] On that (skin) they both sit down facing the east or the north, so that the wife sits behind her husband, with (the verse), 'Here may the cows sit down, here the horses, here the men. Here may also Pushan with a thousand (sacrificial) gifts sit down.'

10. They sit silently until the stars appear.

11. When the stars have appeared, he goes forth from the house (with his wife) in an easterly or northerly direction, and worships the quarters (of the horizon) with (the hemistich), 'Ye goddesses, ye six wide ones' (Taitt. Samh. IV, 7, 14, 2).

12. [*12] (He worships) the stars with (the Pada), 'May we not be deprived of our offspring;'

13. The moon with (the Pada), 'May we not get into the power of him who hates us, O king Soma!

14. He worships the seven Rishis (ursa major) with (the verse), 'The seven Rishis who have led to firmness she, Arundhati, who stands first among the six Krittikas (pleiads):--may she, the eighth one, who leads the conjunction of the (moon with the) six Krittikas, the first (among conjunctions) shine upon us!' Then he worships the polar star with (the formula), 'Firm dwelling, firm origin. The firm one art thou, standing on the side of firmness. Thou art the pillar of the stars; thus protect me against my adversary.

Adoration be to the Brahman, to the firm, immovable one! Adoration be to the Brahman's son, Pragapati! Adoration to the Brahman's children,

[p. 195]

to the thirty-three gods! Adoration to the Brahman's children and grandchildren, to the Angiras!

He who knows thee (the polar star) as the firm, immovable Brahman with its children and with its grandchildren, with such a man children and grandchildren will firmly dwell, servants and pupils, garments and woollen blankets, bronze and gold, wives and kings, food, safety, long life, glory, renown, splendour, strength, holy lustre, and the enjoyment of food. May all these things firmly and immovably dwell with me!'

Footnotes

193:4 22, 4 'If the fire on which they had put wood, was a fire produced by attrition, (the new fire) should (also) be kindled by attrition. If it was a common (laukika) fire that they had fetched, (the new fire) should be fetched from a Srotriya's house. Thereby it is shown that the common fire at the Upanayana ceremony, &c., should be fetched only from a Srotriya's house.' Matridatta.

194:9 Comp. Paraskara I, 8, 10, and the readings quoted there from the Atharva-veda.

194:12 12, 13. These are the two last Padas of the verse of which the first hemistich is quoted in Sutra 11.

 

 

PATALA 7, SECTION 23.

1. (Then follow the Mantras), 'I know thee as the firm Brahman. May I become firm in this world and in this country.

'I know thee as the immovable Brahman. May I not be moved away from this world and from this country. May he who hates me, my rival, be moved away from this world and from this country.

'I know thee as the unshaken Brahman. May I not be shaken off from this world and from this country. May he who hates me, my rival, be shaken off from this world and from this country.

'I know thee as the unfailing Brahman. May I not fall from this world and from this country. May he who hates me, my rival, fall from this world and from this country.

'I know thee as the nave of the universe. May I become the nave of this country. I know thee as the centre of the universe. May I become the centre of this country. I know thee as the string that holds the universe. May I become the string that holds this country. I know thee as the pillar

[p. 196]

of the universe. May I become the pillar of this country. I know thee as the navel of the universe. May I become the navel of this country.

'As the navel is the centre of the Pranas, thus I am the navel. May hundred-and-onefold evil befall him who hates us and whom we hate; may more than hundred-and-onefold merit fall to my lot!'

2. Having spoken there with a person that he likes, and having returned to the house, he causes her to sacrifice a mess of cooked food.

3. The wife husks (the rice grains of which that Sthalipaka is prepared).

4. She cooks (that Sthalipaka), sprinkles (Agya) on it, takes it from the fire, sacrifices to Agni, and then sacrifices to Agni Svishtakrit.

5. [*5] With (the remains of) that (Sthalipaka) he entertains a learned Brahmana whom he reveres.

6. To that (Brahmana) he makes a present of a bull.

7. From that time he constantly sacrifices (yagate) on the days of the full and of the new moon a mess of cooked food sacred to Agni.

8. In the evening and in the morning he constantly sacrifices (guhoti) with his hand (and not with the Darvi) the two following oblations of rice or of barley: 'To Agni Svaha! To Pragapati Svaha!'

9. Some (teachers) state that in the morning the

[p. 197]

former (of these oblations) should be directed to Surya.

10. Through a period of three nights they should eat no saline food, should sleep on the ground, wear ornaments, and should be chaste.

11. [*11] In the fourth night, towards morning, he puts wood on the fire, performs the (regular) ceremonies down to the (regular) expiatory oblations, and sacrifices nine expiatory oblations (with the following Mantras):

Footnotes

196:5 5, 6. In the commentary these Sutras are divided thus: 5. tena brahmanam vidyavantam pariveveshti; 6. yo'syapakito bhavati tasma rishabham dadati. (5. Therewith he entertains a learned Brahmana. 6. To one whom he reveres, he presents a bull.) The commentator observes that some authorities make one Sutra of the two, so that the Brahmana who receives the food and the one to whom the bull is given, would be the same person.

197:11 According to the commentary he performs the regular ceremonies down to the oblation offered with the Mantra, 'Thus thou, Agni' (see above, I, 3, 5, and compare Paraskara I, 2, 8). Matridatta says, prayaskittiparyantam kritva sa tvam no Agna ity etadantam kritva nava prayaskittir guhoti . . . vyahritiparyantam kritva imam me Varuneti katasro (I, 3, 5) hutvaita guhoti.

 

 

PATALA 7, SECTION 24.

1. 'Agni! Expiation! Thou art expiation. I, the Brahmana, entreat thee, desirous of protection. What is terrible in her, drive that away from here. Svaha!

'Vayu! Expiation! Thou art expiation. I, the Brahmana, entreat thee, desirous of protection. What is blameful in her, drive that away from here. Svaha!

'Sun! Expiation! Thou art expiation. I, the Brahmana, entreat thee, desirous of protection. What dwells in her that is death-bringing to her husband, drive that away from here. Svaha!

'Sun! Expiation! &c.

'Vayu! Expiation! &c.

'Agni! Expiation! &c.

'Agni! Expiation! &c.

'Vayu! Expiation! &c.

'Sun! Expiation! &c.'

[p. 198]

2. Having sacrificed (these oblations), he then pours the remainder as an oblation on her head, with (the formulas), 'Bhuh! I sacrifice fortune over thee. Svaha! Bhuvah! I sacrifice glory over thee. Svaha! Suvah! I sacrifice beauty over thee. Svaha! Bhur bhuvah suvah! I sacrifice brightness over thee. Svaha!'

3. There (near the sacrificial fire) he places a water-pot, walks round the fire (and that water-pot) keeping his right side turned towards it, makes (the wife) lie down to the west of the fire, facing east or north, and touches her secret parts, with (the formula), 'We touch thee with the five-forked, auspicious, unhostile (?), thousandfoldly blessed, glorious hand that thou mayst be rich in offspring!'

4. He then cohabits with her with (the formula), 'United is our soul, united our hearts, united our navel, united our skin. I will bind thee with the bond of love; that shall be insoluble.'

5. He then embraces her with (the formula), 'Be devoted to me; be my companion. What dwells in thee that is death-bringing to thy husband, that I make death-bringing to thy paramours. Bring luck to me; be a sharp-cutting (destroyer) to thy paramours.'

6. [*6] He then seeks her mouth with his mouth, with (the two verses), 'Honey! Lo! Honey! This is honey! my tongue's speech is honey; in my mouth dwells the honey of the bee; on my teeth dwells concord.

'The (magic charm of) concord that belongs to the kakravaka birds, that is brought out of the

[p. 199]

rivers, of which the divine Gandharva is possessed, thereby we are concordant.'

7. [*7] A woman that has her monthly courses, keeps through a period of three nights the observances prescribed in the Brahmana.

8. In the fourth night (the husband) having sipped water, calls (the wife) who has taken a bath, who wears a clean dress and ornaments, and has spoken with a Brahmana, to himself (with the following verses):

Footnotes

198:6 With the first verse comp. Taitt. Samh. VII, 5, 10, 1; Katyayana XIII, 3, 21; Latyayana IV, 3, 18.

199:7 Taitt. Samhita II, 5, 1, 5.6: Therefore one should not speak with a woman that has her monthly courses, nor sit together with her, nor eat food that she has given him, &c.

 

 

PATALA 7, SECTION 25.

1. [*1] (a) 'May Vishnu make thy womb ready; may Tvashtri frame the shape (of the child); may Pragapati pour forth (the sperm); may Dhatri give thee conception!

(b) 'Give conception, Sinivali; give conception, Sarasvati! May the two Asvins, wreathed with lotus, give conception to thee!

(c) 'The embryo which the two Asvins produce with their golden kindling-sticks: that embryo we call into thy womb, that thou mayst give birth to it after ten months.

(d) [*d] 'As the earth is pregnant with Agni, as the heaven is with Indra pregnant, as Vayu dwells in the womb of the regions (of the earth), thus I place an embryo into thy womb.

[p. 200]

(e) 'Open thy womb; take in the sperm; may a male child, an embryo be begotten in the womb. The mother bears him ten months; may he be born, the most valiant of his kin.

(f) 'May a male embryo enter thy womb, as an arrow the quiver; may a man be born here, thy son, after ten months.

(g) [*g] 'I do with thee (the work) that is sacred to Pragapati; may an embryo enter thy womb. May a child be born without deficiency, with all its limbs, not blind, not lame, not sucked out by Pisakas.

(h) [*h] 'By the superior powers which the bulls shall produce for us, thereby become thou pregnant; may he be born, the most valiant of his kin.

(i) [*i] 'Indra has laid down in the tree the embryo of the sterile cow and of the cow that prematurely produces; thereby become thou pregnant; be a well-breeding cow'--

And (besides with the two Mantras), 'United are our names' (above, 24, 4), and, 'The concord of the kakravaka birds' (24, 6).

2. (He should cohabit with her with the formulas), 'Bhuh! Through Pragapati, the highest bull, I pour forth (the sperm); conceive a valiant son, N.N.! Bhuvah! Through Pragapati, &c.--Suvah! Through Pragapati, &c.' Thus he will gain a valiant son.

3. The Mantras ought to be repeated whenever they cohabit, according to Atreya,

4. Only the first time and after her monthly courses, according to Badarayana.

[p. 201]

Footnotes

199:1 25, 1 (a-c). Rig-veda X, 184, 1-3; comp. S.B.E., vol. xv, p. 221.

199:d (d-f). Sankhayana-Grihya I, 19. It should be observed that the text of Hiranyakesin has in the beginning of (e) quite the same blunder which is found also in the Sankhayana MSS., yasya instead of vyasya.

200:g (g) Comp. Atharva-veda III, 23, 5. The Apastambiya Mantrapatha reads (a)pisakadhitah.

200:h (h) Sankhayana-Grihya I, 19, 6; Atharva-veda III, 23, 4.

200:i (i) Comp. Atharva-veda III, 23, 1.

 

 

PATALA 7, SECTION 26 [*1].

1. The fire which (the sacrificer keeps) from the time of his marriage, is called the Aupasana (or sacred domestic fire)

2. With this fire the sacred domestic ceremonies are performed.

3. [*3] On account of his worship devoted to this (fire the sacrificer) is considered as an Ahitagni (i.e. as one who has set up the Srauta fires), and on account of his fortnightly Karu sacrifices (on the days of the new and full moon) as one who offers the sacrifices of the new and full moon (as prescribed in the Srauta ritual); so (is it taught).

4. If (the service at the domestic fire) has been interrupted for twelve days, the sacrificer ought to set the fire up again.

5. Or he should count all the sacrifices (that have been left out), and should offer them.

6. (The punaradhana or repeated setting up of the fire is performed in the following way): in an enclosed space, having raised (the surface), sprinkled it (with water), strewn it with sand, and covered it with Udumbara or Plaksha branches, he silently brings together the things belonging to (the sacrifice) according as he is able to get them, produces fire by attrition out of a sacrificially pure piece of wood, or gets a common fire, places it in a big vessel, sets it in a blaze, and puts (fuel) on it with the words, 'Bhuh! Bhuvah! Suvah! Om! Fixity!'

[p. 202]

7. He then puts wood on the fire, performs (the rites) down to the Vyahriti oblations, and offers two 'minda oblations' (i.e. oblations for making up for defects) with (the two Mantras), 'If a defect (minda) has arisen in me,' (and), 'Agni has given me back my eye' (Taitt. Samh. III, 2, 5, 4).

8. He offers three 'tantu oblations' with (the Mantras), 'Stretching the weft (tantu)' (Taitt. Samh. III, 4, 2, 2), 'Awake, Agni!' (IV, 7, 13, 5), 'The thirty-three threads of the weft' (I, 5, 10, 4).

9. He offers four 'abhyavartin oblations' with (the Mantras), 'Agni who turns to us (abhyavartin)!' 'Agni Angiras!' 'Again with sap,' 'With wealth' (Taitt. Samh. IV. 2, 1, 2. 3).

10. [*10] Having made oblations with the single Vyahritis and with (the three Vyahritis together), and having made an oblation with the verse, 'Thou art quick, Agni, and free from imprecation. Verily (satyam) thou art quick. Held by us in our quick mind (manas), with thy quick (mind) thou carriest the offering (to the gods). Being quick bestow medicine on us! Svaha!'--this (last) oblation contains an allusion to the mind (manas), it refers to Pragapati, and alludes to the number seven (?),--he quickly repeats in his mind the dasahotri formula (Taitt. Arany. III, 1, 1). Then he makes the sagraha oblation (?); (then follow the

[p. 203]

oblations), 'This, O Varuna' (&c.; see I, 2, 8, 16, down to the end of the Sutra). Then he serves food to the Brahmanas and causes them to say, 'An auspicious day! Hail! Good luck!' he then performs in the known way the sacrifice of a mess of cooked food to Agni.

11. Here he gives an optional gift to his Guru: a pair of clothes, a milch cow, or a bull.

12. [*12] If he sets out on a journey, he makes the fire enter himself or the two kindling-sticks in the way that has been described (in the Srauta-sutra).

13. Or let him make it enter a piece of wood, in the same way as into the kindling-sticks.

14. A piece of Khadira wood, or of Palasa, or of Udumbara, or of Asvattha wood--

15. With one of these kinds of wood he fetches, where he turns in (on his journey), fire from the house of a Srotriya, and puts the (piece of wood) into which his fire has entered, on (that fire), with the two verses, 'He who has received the oblations' (Taitt. Samh. IV, 6, 5, 3), and 'Awake!' (IV, 7, 13, 5).

16. The way in which he sacrifices has been explained (in the Srauta-sutra).

17. If one half-monthly sacrifice has been omitted, he should have a sacrifice to (Agni) Pathikrit performed over this (fire). If two (half-monthly sacrifices), to (Agni) Vaisvanara and Pathikrit. If more than two, (the fire) has to be set up again.

18. If the fire is destroyed or lost, or if it is mixed with other fires, it has to be set up again..

Footnotes

201:1 This chapter is left out in Matridatta's commentary; it seems to be a later addition. The division of the Sutras is my own.

201:3 26, 3. For tasyaupasanena I think we should read tasyopasanena.

202:10 As to the Mantra, 'Thou art quick, &c.,' comp. above, I, 1, 3, 5, and the note on Sankhayana I, 9, 12. I cannot see why the oblation made with this Mantra is called saptavati (alluding to the number seven); possibly we ought to read satyavati (containing the word satyam, 'verily'). Can the words sagraham hutva mean, 'having performed the worship of the planets (graha) at his sacrifice'?

203:12 Comp. Sankhayana V, 1, 1.

 

[p. 204]

 

PRASNA I, PATALA 8, SECTION 27.

1. If he will have a house built, he should during the northerly course of the sun, in the time of the increasing moon, under the constellation Rohini and under the three constellations designated as Uttara (Uttara-Phalguni, Uttara-Ashadha, Uttara-Proshthapadah) put wood on the fire, perform the rites down to the Vyahriti oblations, and should sacrifice with (the verses), 'This, O Varuna' (&c.; see I, 2, 8, 16, down to the end of the Sutra). Then he serves food to the Brahmanas and causes them to say, 'An auspicious day! Hail! Good luck!' he puts on a garment that has not yet been washed, touches water, takes a shovel with (the formula), 'On the impulse of the god Savitri' (Taitt. Samh. I, 3, 1, 1) draws lines thrice from the left to the right round (the places where the pits for the posts shall be dug) with (the formula), 'A line has been drawn' (Taitt. Samh. I, 3, 1, 1), digs the pits (in which the posts shall be erected) as it is fit, and casts the earth (dug out of those pits) towards the inside (of the building-ground).

2. He erects the southern door-post with (the verse), 'Here I erect a firm house; it stands in peace, streaming ghee. Thus may we walk in thee, O house, blessed with heroes, with all heroes, with unharmed heroes;'

3. The northern (door-post) with (the verse), 'Stand here firmly, O house, rich in horses and cows, rich in delight; rich in sap, overflowing with milk be set up, for the sake of great happiness.'

[p. 205]

4.  With (the verse), 'To thee (may) the young child (go), to thee the calf with its companion, to thee the golden cup; to thee may they go with pots of curds'--he touches the two posts, after they have been erected.

5. In the same way (Sutras 2. 3) he erects the two chief posts,

6. And touches them as above (Sutra 4).

7. He fixes the beam of the roof on the posts with (the formula), 'Rightly ascend the post, O beam, erect, shining, drive off the enemies. Give us treasures and valiant sons.'

8.  When the house has got its roof, he touches it with (the verse),

'The consort of honour, a blissful refuge, a goddess, thou hast been erected by the gods in the beginning; clothed in grass, cheerful thou art; bring us bliss, to men and animals.'

9. Then, under the constellation Anuradha, the ground (on which the house stands) is expiated (in the following way).

10. By night he puts wood on the fire in an inner room (of the house), performs the rites down to the Vyahriti oblations, and sacrifices (with the following Mantras):

 

 

PATALA 8, SECTION 28.

1. [*1] The two verses commencing 'Vastoshpati!' (Taitt. Samh. III, 4, 10, 1).

[p. 206]

'Vastoshpati! Be our furtherer; make our wealth increase in cows and horses, O Indu (i.e. Soma). Free from decay may we dwell in thy friendship; give us thy favour, as a father to his sons. Svaha!

'May death go away; may immortality come to us. May Vivasvat's son (Mama) protect us from danger. May wealth, like a leaf (that falls) from a tree, fall down over us. May Sakipati (i.e. Indra) be with us. Svaha!

'Go another way, O death, that belongs to thee, separated from the way of the gods. Vastoshpati! To thee who hears us, I speak: do no harm to our offspring nor to our heroes. Svaha!

'To this most excellent place of rest we have gone, by which we shall victoriously gain cows, treasures, and horses. May wealth, like a leaf (that falls) from a tree, fall down over us. May Sakipati be with us. Svaha!

'This, O Varuna' (&c.; see chap. 27, Sutra 1, down to): 'Hail! Good luck!'

2. In this way the ground (on which the house stands) should be expiated every year;

3. Every season, according to some (teachers).

Footnotes

205:4 27, 4. The text has the reading gagata saha; comp. the note on Sankhayana III, 2, 9.

205:8 Comp. Atharva-veda III, 11, 5; this text shows the way to correct the blunders of the Hiranyakesin MSS.

205:1 28, 1. Comp. Rig-veda III, 54, 2; Taitt. Brahm. III, 7, 14, 4; Rig-veda X, 18, 1; Taitt. Brahm. III, 7, 14, 5.

 

 

PATALA 8, SECTION 29.

1. [*1] 'House, do not fear, do not tremble; bringing strength we come back. Bringing strength, gaining wealth, wise I come back to the house, rejoicing in my mind.

'Of which the traveller thinks, in which much joy

[p. 207]

dwells, the house I call. May it know us as we know it.

'Hither are called the cows; hither are called goats and sheep; and the sweet essence of food is called hither to our house.

'Hither are called many friends, the sweet companionship of friends. May our dwellings always be unharmed with all our men.

'Rich in sap, rich in milk, refreshing, full of joy and mirth, free from hunger (?) and thirst, O house, do not fear us'--with (these verses) he approaches his house (when returning from a journey).

2. 'To thee I turn for the sake of safety, of peace. The blissful one! The helpful one!, Welfare! Welfare!'--with (this formula) he enters.

3. On that day, on which he has arrived, he should avoid all quarrelling.

4. 'The joyful house I enter which does not bring death to men; most manly (I enter) the auspicious one. Bringing refreshment, with genial minds (we enter the house); joyfully I lie down in it'--with (this verse) he lies down.

5. [*5] 'May we find our way with thee through all hostile powers, as through streams of water'--with (this verse) he looks at his wife; he looks at his wife.

End of the First Prasna.

Footnotes

206:1 29, 1. Sankhayana-Grihya III, 7, 2; Atharva-veda VII, 60.

207:5 Comp. above, chap. 20, Sutra 5; Rig-veda II, 7, 3.

 

[p. 208]

 

PRASNA II, PATALA 1, SECTION 1,

1. Now (follows) the Simantonnayana (or parting of the pregnant wife's hair).

2. In the fourth month of her first pregnancy, in the fortnight of the increasing moon, under an auspicious constellation he puts wood on the fire, performs the rites down to the Vyahriti oblations, and makes four oblations to Dhatri with (the verse), 'May Dhatri give us wealth' (and the following three verses, Taitt. Samh. III, 3, II, 2. 3).

3. [*3] 'This, O Varuna' (&c.; see I, chap. 27, Sutra 2, down to): 'Hail! Good luck!'

He then makes the wife who has taken a bath, who wears a clean dress and ornaments, and has spoken with a Brahmana, sit down to the west of the fire, facing the east, in a round apartment. Standing to the east (of the wife), facing the west he parts her hair upwards (i.e. beginning from the front) with a porcupine's quill that has three white spots, holding (also) a bunch of unripe fruits, with the Vyahritis (and) with the two (verses), 'I invoke Raka,' (and), 'Thy graces, O Raka' (Taitt. Samh. III, 3, 11, 5). Then he recites over (his wife the formulas), 'Soma alone is our king, thus say the Brahmana tribes, sitting near thy banks, O Ganga,

[p. 209]

whose wheel does not roll back (?)!' (and), 'May we find our way with thee through all hostile powers, as through streams of water' (above I, 20, 5).

Footnotes

208:3 1, 3. The corrupt word vivrittakakra(h) seems to contain a vocative fem. referring to Gange--avivrittakakra? The Apastambiya Mantrapatha reads, vivrittakakra asinas tirena yamune tava. Comp. Asvalayana I, 14, 7; Paraskara I, 15, 8.

 

 

PATALA 1, SECTION 2.

1. Now (follows) the Pumsavana (i.e. the ceremony for securing the birth of a male child).

2. [*2] In the third month, in the fortnight of the increasing moon, under an auspicious constellation (&c.; see the preceding section, Sutras 2 and 3, down to:) in a round apartment. He gives her a barley-grain in her right hand with (the formula), 'A man art thou;'

3. With (the formula), 'The two testicles are ye,' two mustard seeds or two beans, on both sides of that barley-grain.

4. With (the formula), 'Svavritat' (? svavrittat?) (he pours) a drop of curds (on those grains). That he gives her to eat.

5. After she has sipped water, he touches her belly with (the formula), 'With my ten (fingers) I touch. thee that thou mayst give birth to a child after ten months.'

6 [*6] (He pounds) the last shoot of a Nyagrodha trunk (and mixes the powder) with ghee, or a silkworm (and mixes the powder) with a pap prepared of panick seeds, or a splinter of a sacrificial post taken from the north-easterly part (of that post) exposed to the fire, or (he takes ashes or soot [?] of)

[p. 210]

a fire that has been kindled by attrition, and inserts that into the right nostril of (the wife) whose head rests on the widely spread root (of an Udumbara tree?).

7. If she miscarries, he should three times stroke (her body), from the navel upwards, with her wet hand, with (the formula), 'Thitherwards, not hitherwards, may Tvashtri bind thee in his bonds. Making (the mother) enter upon the seasons, live ten months (in thy mother's womb); do not bring death to men.'

8. [*8] When her confinement has come, he performs the kshipraprasavana (i.e. the ceremony for accelerating the confinement). Having placed a water-pot near her head and a Turyanti plant near her feet, he touches her belly.

Footnotes

209:2 2, 2. Comp. the note on Asvalayana I, 13, 2.

209:6 The translation of this Sutra should be considered merely as tentative. Some words of the text are uncertain, and the remarks of Matridatta are very incorrectly given in the MSS.

210:8 Comp. Apastamba-Grihya VI, 14, 14; Asvalayana II, 8, 14; IV, 4, 8.

 

 

PATALA 1, SECTION 3.

1. 'As the wind blows, as the ocean waves, thus may the embryo move; may it come forth together with the after-birth'--with (this verse) he strokes (her body) from above downwards.

2. When the child is born, he lays an axe on a stone, and a piece of gold on that axe; after he has turned these things upside down (so that the stone lies uppermost), he holds the boy over them with (the two verses),

'Be a stone, be an axe, be insuperable gold. Thou indeed art the Veda called son; so live a hundred autumns.

[p. 211]

'From limb by limb thou art produced; out of the heart thou art born. Thou indeed art the self (atman) called son; so live a hundred autumns.'

3. (The contents of this Sutra are similar to those of Paraskara I, 16, 2.)

4. They take the Aupasana (or regular Grihya) fire away, and they bring the Sutikagni (or the fire of the confinement).

5. That (fire) is only used for warming (dishes, etc.).

6. No ceremonies are performed with it except the fumigation (see the next Sutra).

7. [*7] He fumigates (the child) with small grains mixed with mustard seeds. These he throws into the coals (of the Sutikagni) (eleven times, each time with one of the following Mantras):

(a) 'May Sanda and Marka, Upavira, Sandikera, Ulukhala, Kyavana vanish from here. Svaha!

(b) 'Alikhat, Vilikhat, Animisha, Kimvadanta, Upasruti. Svaha!

(c) 'Aryamna, Kumbhin, Satru, Patrapani, Nipuni. Svaha!

(d) 'May Antrimukha, Sarshaparuna vanish from here. Svaha!

(e) 'Kesini, Svalomini, Bagaboga, Upakasini--go away, vanish from here. Svaha!

(f) 'The servants of Kuvera, Visvavasa (?), sent by the king of demons, all of one common origin,

[p. 212]

walk through the villages, visiting those who wake (?). Svaha!

(g) '"Kill them! Bind them!" thus (says) this messenger of Brahman. Agni has encompassed them. Indra knows them; Brihaspati knows them; I the Brahmana know them who seize (men), who have prominent teeth, rugged hair, hanging breasts. Svaha!

(h) 'The night-walkers, wearing ornaments on their breasts, with lances in their hands, drinking out of skulls! Svaha!

(i) 'Their father Ukkaihsravyakarnaka walks (?) at their head, their mother walks in the rear, seeking a vikhura (?) in the village. Svaha!

(k) 'The sister, the night-walker, looks at the family through the rift (?)--she who wakes while people sleep, whose mind is turned on the wife that has become mother. Svaha!

(l) 'O god with the black path, Agni, burn the lungs, the hearts, the livers of those (female demons); burn their eyes. Svaha!'

8. [*8] Then he washes his hands and touches the ground with (the verses), 'O thou whose hair is well parted! Thy heart that dwells in heaven, in the moon: of that immortality impart to us. May I not weep over distress (falling to my lot) through my sons.

 

'I know thy heart, O earth, that dwells in heaven, in the moon: thus may I, the lord of immortality, not weep over distress (falling to my lot) through my sons.'

9. Now (follows) the medhaganana (or production

[p. 213]

of intelligence). With (an instrument of) gold over which he has laid a Darbha shoot tied (to that piece of gold) he gives to the child, which is held so that it faces the east, ghee to eat, with the formulas, 'Bhuh! I sacrifice the Rikas over thee! Bhuvah! I sacrifice the Yagus over thee! Suvah! I sacrifice the Samans over thee! Bhur bhuvah suvah! I sacrifice the Atharvan and Angiras hymns over thee!'

10. [*10] He then bathes the child with lukewarm water with (the following Mantras):

'From chronic disease, from destruction, from wile, from Varuna's fetter I release thee. I make thee guiltless before the Brahman; may both Heaven and Earth be kind towards thee.

'May Agni together with the waters bring thee bliss, Heaven and Earth together with the herbs; may the air together with the wind bring thee bliss; may the four quarters of the heaven bring thee bliss.

'Rightly have the gods released the sun from darkness and from the seizing demon; they have dismissed him from guilt; thus I deliver this boy from chronic disease, from curse that comes from his kin, from wile, from Varuna's fetter.'

11. He then places the child in his mother's lap with (the verse):

Footnotes

211:7 3, 7. According to Paraskara (I, 16, 23) this is done daily in the morning and in the evening, until the mother gets up from childbed.--Comp. the names of the demons, Paraskara I, 16, 23.--For vikhuram (Mantra i) the Apastambiya Mantrapatha has vidhuram ('distress' or 'a distressed one').

212:8 Paraskara I, 6, 17.

213:10 Comp. Atharva-veda II, 10; Taitt. Brahm. II, 5, 6.

 

 

PATALA 1, SECTION 4.

1. 'The four divine quarters of the heaven, the consorts of Wind, whom the sun surveys: to their

[p. 214]

long life I turn thee; may consumption go away to destruction!'

2. [*2] Having placed (him there) he addresses (his wife with the Mantra), 'May no demon do harm to thy son, no cow that rushes upon him (?). Mayst thou become the friend of treasures; mayst thou live in prosperity in thy own way.'

3. He washes her right breast and makes her give it to the child with (the formula), 'May this boy suckle long life; may he reach old age. Let thy breast be exuberant for him, and life, glory, renown, splendour, strength.'

4. In the same way the left breast.

5. With (the words), 'He does not suffer, he does not cry, when we speak to him and when we touch him'--he touches both breasts. Then he places a covered water-pot near her head, with (the formula), 'O waters, watch in the house. As you watch with the gods, thus watch over this wife, the mother of a good son.'

6. On the twelfth day the mother and the son take a bath.

7. They make the house clean.

8. [*8] They take the Sutikagni away, and they bring the Aupasana fire.

9. Having put wood on that fire, and having performed the rites down to the Vyahriti oblations, they sacrifice twelve oblations with the verses, 'May Dhatri give us wealth' (III, 3, II, 2-5); according to some (teachers they make) thirteen (oblations).

[p. 215]

10. 'This, O Varuna' (&c.; see I, chap. 27, Sutra 2, down to): 'Hail! Good luck!' Then let him give a name to the child, of two syllables or of four syllables, beginning with a sonant, with a semi-vowel in it, with a long vowel (or) the Visarga at its end, or a name that contains the particle su, for such a name has a firm foundation; thus it is understood.

11. [*11] Let the father and the mother pronounce (that name) first. For it is understood, 'My name first, O Gatavedas.'

12. He should give him two names. For it is understood (Taitt. Samh. VI, 3, I, 3), 'Therefore a Brahmana who has two names, will have success.'

13. [*13] The second name should be a Nakshatra name.

14. The one name should be secret; by the other they should call him.

15. He should give him the name Somayagin (i.e. performer of Soma sacrifices) as his third name; thus it is understood.

16. When he returns from a journey, or when his son returns, he touches him with (the formula), 'With Soma's lustre I touch thee, with Agni's splendour, with the glory of the sun.'

17. [*17] With (the formula), 'With the humkara (the mystical syllable hum) of the cattle I kiss thee, N.N.! For the sake of long life and of glory! Hum!' he

[p. 216]

kisses his head. Then he seizes with his right hand (his son's) right hand together with the thumb, with the five sections, 'Agni is long-lived.'

18. [*18] 'May Agni bestow on thee long life everywhere' (Taitt. Samh. I, 3, 14, 4)--this (verse) he murmurs in (his son's) right ear as above.

Footnotes

214:2 4, 2. I am not certain about the translation of dhenur atisarini. The Apastambiya Mantrapatha has atyakarini. Atisarin means, suffering from diarrhoea; perhaps we should read abhisarini.

214:8 Comp. chap. 3, Sutra 4.

215:11 The verse beginning with 'My name,' &c., contains the words, 'which my father and my mother have given me in the beginning' (pita mata ka dadhatur yad agre).

215:13 Comp. Professor Weber's second article, 'Die vedischen Nachrichten von den Naxatra' (Abb. der Berliner Akademie), pp. 316 seq.

215:17 Comp. above, I, 2, 5, 14.

216:18 18. 1, 2, 5, 15; 2, 6, 1.

 

 

PATALA 1, SECTION 5.

1. Then (follows) in the sixth month the Annaprasana (i.e. the first feeding with solid food).

2. In the fortnight of the increasing moon, under an auspicious constellation, he puts wood on the fire, performs the rites down to the Vyahriti oblations, and sacrifices (with the Mantras), 'This, O Varuna' (&c.; see I, chap. 27, Sutra 2, down to): 'Hail! Good luck!' Then he gives (to the child) threefold food to eat, curds, honey, and ghee, with (the formula), 'Bhuh I lay into thee! Bhuvah I lay into thee! Suvah I lay into thee!'

3. Then he gives him (other) food to eat with (the formula), 'I give thee to eat the essence of water and of the plants. May water and plants be kind towards thee. May water and plants do no harm to thee.'

 

 

PATALA 1, SECTION 6.

1. In the third year (he performs) the Kudakarman (i.e. the tonsure of the child's head).

2. In the fortnight (&c., as in the preceding section, Sutra 2, down to): 'Hail! Good luck!' The boy sits down to the west of the fire, facing the east;

[p. 217]

3. [*3] To the north (of the fire) his mother or a student (brahmakarin) holds a lump of bull's dung;

4. Therewith he (or she) receives the (cut-off) hair.

5. He then pours cold and warm water together.

6. [*6] Having poured warm water into cold water he moistens the hair near the right ear with (the formula), 'May the waters moisten thee for life' (Taitt. Samh. I, 2, I, 1).

7. [*7] With (the formula), 'Herb, protect him!' (Taitt. Samh., loc. cit.) he puts an herb, with its point upwards, into (the hair).

8. With (the formula), 'Axe, do no harm to him!' (Taitt. Samh., loc. cit.) he touches (that herb) with the razor.

9. With (the words), 'Heard by the gods, I shave that (hair)' (Taitt. Samh., loc. cit.) he shaves him.

10. In the same way (he moistens, &c.) the other (sides of his head) from left to right.

11. Behind with (the Mantra), 'The razor with which Savitri, the knowing one, has shaven (the beard) of king Soma and Varuna, with that, ye Brahmanas, shave his (head); make that he be united with vigour, with wealth, with glory.'

On the left side with (the Mantra), '(The razor) with which Pushan has shaven (the beard) of Brihaspati, of Agni, of Indra, for the sake of long life, with that I shave thy (head), N.N.!'

[p. 218]

Before with (the Mantra), 'That he may long live in joy, and may long see the sun.'

12. After the hair has been shaven, they arrange the locks (which are left over), according to custom or according to what family he belongs.

13. [*13] A person who is kindly disposed towards him, gathers the (cut-off) hair and buries it in a cow-stable, or near an Udumbara tree, or in a clump of Darbha grass, with (the Mantra), 'Where Pushan, Brihaspati, Savitri, Soma, Agni (dwell), they have in many ways searched where they should depose it, between heaven and earth, the waters and heaven.'

14. [*14] He makes a gift to a Brahmana according to his liberality.

15. To the barber (he gives) boiled rice with butter.

16. In the same way the Godanakarman (or the ceremony of shaving the beard) is performed in the sixteenth year.

17. He has him shaven including the top-lock.

18. Some declare that he leaves there the top-lock.

19. [*19] Or he performs the Godana sacred to Agni.

20. He gives a cow to his Guru.

End of the First Patala.

Footnotes

217:3 6, 3, 4. Some consider, according to Matridatta, these two Sutras as one. He says (p. 149 of Dr. Kirste's edition), uttarata ity etadadi pratigrihnatity etadantam va sutram, dharayams tenasya kesan pratipathitavyam (read, pratigrihnatiti pathitavyam).

217:6 As to dakshinam godanam unatti, comp. the note on Paraskara II, 1, 9. Comp. also above, I, 3, 9, 12.

217:7 7 seq. See above, I, 3, 9, 13 seq.

218:13 Comp. I, 3, 9, 18.

218:14 Literally, according to his faith (yathasraddham).

218:19 Agnigodano va kumaro bhavati upasamadhanadi punyahavakanantam agnikaryam iva va bhavatity arthah. Matridatta. Comp., however, the note on Apastamba-Grihya VI, 16, 13.

 

[p. 219]

 

PRASNA II, PATALA 2, SECTION 7.

1. [*1] Now (follows) the expiation for attacks of the dog-demon (epilepsy) (on the boy).

2. [*2] When the attack assails (the boy, the performer of the ceremony) arranges his sacrificial cord over his left shoulder, sips water, and fetches water with a cup that has not yet been used (in order to pour it upon the boy). In the middle of the hall he elevates (the earth at) that place in which they use to gamble; he besprinkles it with water, casts the dice, scatters them (on all sides), makes a heap of them, spreads them out, makes an opening in the thatched roof of the hall, takes the boy in through that (opening), lays him on his back on the dice, and pours a mixture of curds and salt-water upon him, while they beat a gong towards the south. (The curds and water are poured on the sick boy with the following Mantras),

'Kurkura, Sukurkura, the Kurkura with the dark fetter . . . .

'Sarameya runs about, looking, as it were, upon the sea. He, the Suvirina (?), wears golden ornaments on his neck and on his breast, the most excellent (ornaments) of dogs (?).

'Suvirina, let him loose! Let him loose, Ekavratya! Let him loose, doggy! Let him loose, Khat!

'Teka and Sasaramatamka and Tula and Vitula and the white one and the red one. Let him loose! . . . . the brown and red one.

'On those two single ones the sarasyakas (?) run

[p. 220]

down in the third heaven from here. Khat! Go away. Sisarama! Sarameya! Adoration to thee, Sisara!

'Your mother is called the messenger; your father is the mandakaka (mandukaka, the frog?). Khat! Go away, &c.

'Your mother is called dula (the staggering one?); your father is the mandakaka. Khat! Go away, &c.

'The stallions (stamp with) their feet. Do not gnash (?) thy teeth. Khat! Go away, &c.

'The carpenter hammers at (the chariots) that have wheels (?). Do not gnash (?) thy teeth. Khat! Go away,' &c.

3. Then (the performer of the ceremony) says, 'Choose a boon.'

4. (The father or brother of the boy replies), 'I choose the boy.'

5. [*5] They should do so, when the attack assails him, three times in the day, in the morning, at noon, and in the afternoon, and when he has recovered.

End of the Second Patala.

Footnotes

219:1 7, 1. svagraho'pasmara unmattah Sarameya ity eke. Matridatta.--Comp. Paraskara I, 16, 24; Apastamba VII, 18, 1.

219:2 The Mantras are partly unintelligible. As to kurkura comp. the note on Paraskara I, 16, 24.

220:5 There can be little doubt as to the correctness of the reading agadah instead of agatah.

 

 

PRASNA II, PATALA 3, SECTION 8.

1. [*1] Now (follows) the sacrifice of the sulagava (or spit-ox, for propitiating Rudra and averting plague in cattle).

2. In the fortnight of the increasing moon, under an auspicious constellation, he puts wood on the fire, strews (Darbha grass) on the entire surface around the fire, cooks a mess of sacrificial food with milk,

[p. 221]

sprinkles it (with Agya), takes it from the fire, builds two huts to the west of the fire, and has the spit-ox led to the southerly (hut) with (the verse), 'May the fallow steeds, the harmonious ones, bring thee hither, together with the white horses, the bright, wind-swift, strong ones, that are as quick as thought. Come quickly to my offering, Sarva! Om!'

3. [*3] To the northerly (hut he has) the 'bountiful one' (led);--(i.e. the consort of the spit-ox);

4. To the middle (between the two huts) the 'conqueror' (i.e. a calf of those two parents).

5. He gives them water to drink in the same order in which they have been led (to their places), prepares three messes of boiled rice, 'spreading under' and sprinkling (Agya) on them, and touches (the three beasts with those portions of rice) in the order in which they have been led (to their places), with (the Mantras), 'May he, the bountiful one, touch it. To the bountiful one svaha! May she, the bountiful one, touch it. To the bountiful one svaha! May the conqueror touch it. To the conqueror svaha!'

6. After he has performed (the rites) down to the Vyahriti oblations, he takes the messes of boiled rice (to the fire) and sacrifices them (the first with the Mantra),

'To the god Bhava svaha! To the god Rudra svaha! To the god Sarva svaha! To the god Isana . . . Pasupati . . . Ugra . . . Bhima svaha! To the great god svaha!'

7. Then he sacrifices the consort's rice to the consort (of Rudra, with the Mantra), 'To the consort

[p. 222]

of the god Bhava svaha! To the consort of the god Rudra . . . Sarva . . . Isana . . . Pasupati . . . Ugra . . . Bhima . . . of he great god svaha!'

8. Then he sacrifices of the middle portion of rice with (the Mantra), 'To the conqueror svaha! To the conqueror svaha!'

9. Then he cuts off from all the three portions of rice and sacrifices the Svishtakrit oblation with (the Mantra), 'To Agni Svishtakrit svaha!'

10. Around that fire they place their cows so that they can smell the smell of that sacrifice.

11. 'With luck may they walk round our full face'--with (these words) he walks round all (the objects mentioned, viz. the fire, the three beasts, and the other cows), so as to turn his right side towards them, and worships (the sulagava) with the (eleven) Anuvakas, 'Adoration to thee, Rudra, to the wrath' (Taitt. Samh. IV, 5), or with the first and last of them.

Footnotes

220:1 8, 1. Comp. Asvalayana IV, 8; Paraskara III, 8; Apastamba VII, 20.

221:3 3, 4. The text has midhiushim, gayantam.

 

 

PATALA 3, SECTION 9.

1. [*1] Now follows the distribution of Palasa leaves (at different places).

2. 'Protector of the house, touch them! To the protector of the house svaha! Protectress of the

[p. 223]

house, touch them! To the protectress of the house svaha! Protector of the door, touch them! To the protector of the door svaha! Protectress of the door, touch them! To the protectress of the door svaha!'--with (these formulas) he puts down four leaves; (then other leaves) with (the formulas), 'Noisy ones, touch them! To the noisy ones svaha! Quivered ones. . . ye that run in the rear . . . Minglers (?) . . . Choosers . . . Eaters, touch them! To the eaters svaha!'--

3. Then again ten (leaves) with (the formula), 'Divine hosts, touch them! To the divine hosts svaha!'

4. Then other ten (leaves) with (the formula), 'Divine hosts that are named and that are not named, touch them! To them svaha!'

5. [*5] Then he makes a basket of leaves, puts into it a lump of boiled rice with an 'under-spreading' (of Agya) and sprinkling (Agya) on it, goes outside his pasture-grounds, and hangs (the basket) up at a tree with (the formula), 'Quivered ones, touch it! To the quivered ones svaha!'

6. [*6] He then performs worship (before that basket) with (the formula), 'Adoration to the quivered one, to him who wears the quiver! To the lord of the thieves adoration!'

7. [*7] With sandal salve, sura and water, unground, fried grains, cow-dung, with a bunch of durva grass, with Udumbara, Palasa, Sami, Vikankata, and

[p. 224]

Asvattha (branches), and with a cow-tail he besprinkles his cows, the bull first, with (the words), 'Bring luck! Bring luck!' Then (the bull) will bring him luck.

8. [*8] He then cooks that mess of sacrificial food, sacred to Kshetrapati (the lord of the field), with milk, sprinkles it (with Agya), takes it from the fire, and performs a sacrifice to Kshetrapati on the path where his cows use to go, without a fire, on four or on seven leaves.

9. He has him (i.e. the Kshetrapati? an ox representing Kshetrapati?) led (to his place) in the same way as the sulagava (chap. 8,  section 2).

10. [*10] He sacrifices quickly, (for) the god has a strong digestion (?).

11. He then performs worship with (the two verses), 'With the lord of the field,' 'Lord of the field' (Taitt. Samh. I, 1, 14, 2. 3).

12. Of (the remains of that sacrificial food) sacred to Kshetrapati his uterine relations should partake, according as the custom of their family is.

End of the Third Patala.

Footnotes

222:1 9, 1. The text has baudhyavihara, on which the commentary observes, baudhyani palasaparnani, tesham viharo viharanam nanadeseshu sthapanam baudhyaviharah, karmanama va. The baudhyavihara is, as its description clearly shows, a ceremony for propitiating Rudra and his hosts and for averting evil from the cattle and the fields. The commentary understands it as forming part of the sulagava described in chap. 8, and with this opinion it would agree very well that no indication of the time at which the baudhyavihara ought to be performed (such as apuryamanapakshe punye nakshatre) is given. Comp. also Apastamba VII, 20, 5 seq.

223:5 I have translated avadhaya (instead of avadaya), as Apastamba VII, 20, 7 reads.

223:6 Taittiriya Samhita IV, 5, 3, 2. Of course the god to whom these designations refer is Rudra.

223:7 The commentary explains surodaka as rain-water, or as rainwater which has fallen while the sun was shining.

224:8 Matridatta says, kshaitrapatyam kshetrapatidevatakam payasi sthalipakam, &c. The meaning of the expression 'that (enam) mess of sacrificial food' is doubtful; the commentary says, enam iti purvapeksham purvavad aupasana evasyapi srapanartham.--The last words (on four or on seven leaves) the commentator transfers to the next Sutra, but he mentions the different opinion of other authorities.

224:10 nurtte sighram yagate. kutah. yatah sa devah pakah pakanasilas tikshmas (read, tikshnas) tasmat. Matridatta.--Possibly Dr. Kirste is right in reading turtam; the corresponding Sutra of Apastamba has kshipram (VII, 20, 15), and, as the Satapatha Brahmana (VI, 3, 2, 2) observes, 'yad vai kshipram tat turtam.'

 

[p. 225]

 

PRASNA II, PATALA 4, SECTION 10.

1. [*1] On the new-moon day, in the afternoon, or on days with an odd number in the dark fortnight the monthly (Sraddha is performed).

2. Having prepared food for the Fathers and having arranged southward-pointed Darbha grass as seats (for the Brahmanas whom he is going to invite), he invites an odd number of pure Brahmanas who are versed in the Mantras, with no deficient limbs, who are not connected with himself by consanguinity or by their Gotra or by the Mantras, (such as his teacher or his pupils).

3. In feeding them he should not look at any (worldly) purposes.

4. [*4] Having put wood on the fire and strewn southward pointed and eastward-pointed Darbha grass around it, having prepared the Agya in an Agya pot over which he has laid one purifier, having sprinkled water round (the fire) from right to left, and put a piece of Udumbara wood on (the fire), he sacrifices with the (spoon called) Darvi which is made of Udumbara wood.

5. Having performed the rites down to the Agyabhaga offerings, he suspends his sacrificial cord over his right shoulder and calls the Fathers (to his sacrifice) with (the verse), 'Come hither, O Fathers, friends of Soma, on your hidden, ancient paths, bestowing on us offspring and wealth and long life, a life of a hundred autumns.'

[p. 226]

6. [*6] He sprinkles water in the same direction (i.e. towards the south) with (the verse), 'Divine waters, send us Agni. May our Fathers enjoy this sacrifice. May they who receive their nourishment every month bestow on us wealth with valiant heroes.'

7. [*7] Having performed the rites down to the Vyahriti oblations with his sacrificial cord over his left shoulder, he suspends it over his right shoulder and sacrifices with (the following Mantras):

'To Soma with the Fathers, svadha! Adoration! 'To Yama with the Angiras and with the Fathers, svadha! Adoration!

'With the waters that spring in the east and those that come from the north: with the waters, the supporters of the whole world, I interpose another one between (myself and) my father. Svadha! Adoration!

'I interpose (another one) through the mountains;

'I interpose through the wide earth; through the sky and the points of the horizon, through infinite bliss I interpose another one between (myself and) my grandfather. Svadha! Adoration!

'I interpose (another one) through the seasons, through days and nights with the beautiful twilight. Through half-months and months I interpose another one between (myself and) my great-grandfather. Svadha! Adoration!'

Then he sacrifices with their names: 'To N.N. svadha! Adoration! To N.N. svadha! Adoration!'

[p. 227]

'Wherein my mother has done amiss, abandoning her duty (towards her husband), may my father take that sperm as his own; may another one fall off from the mother. Svadha! Adoration!'

In the same way a second and a third verse with the alteration of the Mantra, 'Wherein my grandmother,' 'Wherein my great-grandmother.'

Footnotes

225:1 10, 1. Comp. Sankhayana IV, 1; Asvalayana II, 5, 10 seq.; IV, 7; Paraskara III, 10; Gobhila IV, 3.

225:4 Comp. above, I, 1, 1, 11 seq. 27; 2, 7 seq.

226:6 Comp. Atharva-veda XVIII, 4, 40.

226:7 Comp. Sankhayana III, 13, 5. The translation there given of the words anyam antah pitur dadhe ought to be changed accordingly.--For abhur anyopapadyatam read matur anyo 'vapadyatam as Sankhayana has.

 

 

PATALA 4, SECTION 11.

1. [*1] 'The Fathers who are here and who are not here, and whom we know and whom we do not know: Agni, to thee they are known, how many they are, Gatavedas. May they enjoy what thou givest them in our oblation. Svadha! Adoration!

'Your limb that this flesh-devouring (Agni) has burnt, leading you to the worlds (of the Fathers), Gatavedas, that I restore to you again. Unviolated with all your limbs arise, O Fathers! Svadha! Adoration!

'Carry the Agya, Gatavedas, to the Fathers, where thou knowest them resting afar. May streams of Agya flow to them; may their wishes with all their desires be fulfilled! Svadha! Adoration!'

In the same way a second and a third verse with the alteration of the Mantra, 'to the grandfathers,' 'to the great-grandfathers.'

2. In the same way he sacrifices of the food, altering the Mantra, 'Carry the food, &c.'

3. Then he sacrifices the Svishtakrit oblation

[p. 228]

with (the formula), 'To Agni Kavyavahana Svishtakrit svadha! Adoration!'

4. He then touches the food with (the formulas), 'The earth is thy vessel, the heaven is the lid. I sacrifice thee into the Brahman's mouth. I sacrifice thee into the up-breathing and down-breathing of the Brahmanas. Thou art imperishable; do not perish for the Fathers yonder, in yon world! The earth is steady; Agni is its surveyor in order that what has been given may not be lost.

'The earth is thy vessel, the heaven is the lid, &c. Do not perish for the grandfathers yonder, in yon world. The air is steady; Vayu is its surveyor, in order that what has been given may not be lost.

'The earth is thy vessel, the heaven is the lid, &c. Do not perish for the great-grandfathers yonder, in yon world. The heaven is steady; Aditya is its surveyor, in order that what has been given may not be lost.'

5. [*5] With (the words), 'I establish myself in the breath and sacrifice ambrosia,' he causes the Brahmanas to touch (the food).

Footnotes

227:1 11, 1. Rig-veda X, 15, 53; Atharva-veda XVIII, 4, 64; Asvalayana-Grihya II, 4, 13, &c. Before the verse, 'Carry the Agya,' the Udikyas, as Matridatta states, insert the words, 'He then makes oblations of Agya (with the Mantra, &c.).' According to this reading the words of the second Sutra, 'In the same way, &c.,' would refer only to these last oblations.

228:5 Comp. Taittiriya Aranyaka X, 84.

 

 

PATALA 4, SECTION 12.

1. While they are eating, he looks at them with (the words), 'My soul (atman) dwells in the Brahman that it may be immortal.'

When they have eaten (and go away), he goes after them and asks for their permission to take the remains of their meal (for the rites which he is going

[p. 229]

to perform). Then he takes a water-pot and a handful of Darbha grass, goes forth to a place that lies in a south-easterly intermediate direction, spreads the Darbha grass out with its points towards the south, and pours out on that (grass) with downward-turned hands, ending in the south, three handfuls of water, with (the formulas), 'May the fathers, the friends of Soma, wipe themselves! May the grandfathers . . . the great-grandfathers, the friends of Soma, wipe themselves!' or, 'N.N.! Wash thyself! N.N.! Wash thyself!'

3. [*3] On that (grass) he puts down, with downward-turned hands, ending in the south, the lumps (of food for the Fathers). To his father he gives his lump with (the words), 'This to thee, father, N.N.!' to the grandfather with (the words), 'This to thee, grandfather, N.N.!' to the great-grandfather with (the words), 'This to thee, great-grandfather, N.N.!' silently a fourth (lump). This (fourth lump) is optional.

4. Should he not know the names (of the ancestors), he gives the lump to the father with (the words), 'Svadha to the Fathers who dwell on the earth,' to the grandfather with (the words), 'Svadha to the Fathers who dwell in the air,' to the great-grandfather with (the words), 'Svadha to the Fathers who dwell in heaven.'

5. Then he gives, corresponding to each lump, collyrium and (other) salve and (something that represents) a garment.

[p. 230]

6. [*6] The collyrium (he gives), saying three times, 'Anoint thy eyes, N.N.! Anoint thy eyes, N.N.!'

7. The salve, saying three times, 'Anoint thyself, N.N.! Anoint thyself, N.N.!'

8. [*8] With (the formula), 'These garments are for you, O Fathers. Do not seize upon anything else that is ours,' he tears off a skirt (of his garment) or a flake of wool and puts that down (for the Fathers), if he is in the first half of his life.

9. He tears out some hairs of his body, if in the second half.

10. Then he washes the vessel (in which the food was of which he had offered the lumps), and sprinkles (the water with which he has washed it), from right to left round (the lumps) with (the Mantra), 'These honey-sweet waters, bringing refreshment to children and grandchildren, giving sweet drink and ambrosia to the Fathers, the divine waters refresh both (the living and the dead), these rivers, abounding in water, covered with reeds, with beautiful bathing-places; may they flow up to you in yon world!' Then he turns the vessel over, crosses his hands so that the left hand becomes right and the right hand becomes left, and worships (the Fathers) with the formulas of adoration, 'Adoration to you, O Fathers, for the sake of sap' (Taitt. Samh. III, 2, 5, 5).

11. Then he goes to the brink of some water and pours down three handfuls of water (with the following Mantras):

Footnotes

229:3 According to the commentary after each formula the words are added, 'and to those who follow thee;' comp. Taitt. Samh. I, 8, 5, 1; III, 2, 5, 5; Katy.-Sraut. IV, 1, 12.

230:6 6 seq. A fourth time he gives the same thing silently; comp. Sutra 3.

230:8 8, 9. If his age is under fifty years or over fifty years (Matridatta; comp. the commentary on Katyayana-Sraut. IV, 1, 17.18).

 

[p. 231]

 

PATALA 4, SECTION 13.

1. 'This is for thee, father, this honey-sweet wave, rich in water. As great as Agni and the earth are, so great is its measure, so great is its might. As. such a great one I give it. As Agni is imperishable and inexhaustible, thus may it be imperishable and inexhaustible, sweet drink to my father. By that imperishable (wave), that sweet drink, live thou together with those, N.N.! The Rikas are thy might.

'This is for thee, grandfather, &c. . . . As great as Vayu and the air are . . . As Vayu is imperishable . . . to my grandfather. . . . The Yagus are thy might.

'This is for thee, great-grandfather, &c. . . . As great as Aditya and the heaven are . . . "The Samans are thy might.'

2. Returning (from the place where he has performed the Pinda offerings) he puts the substance cleaving (to the Sthali) into the water-pot and pours it out, with (the verse), 'Go away, O Fathers, friends of Soma, on your hidden, ancient paths. After a month return again to our house and eat our offerings, rich in offspring, in valiant sons.'

3. [*3] Thereby the (Sraddha) celebrated in the middle of the rainy season has been declared.

4. There (oblations of) flesh are prescribed;

5. Of vegetables, if there is no flesh.

End of the Fourth Patala.

Footnotes

231:3 Madhyavarsham. Comp. the note on Sankhayana III, 13, 1.

 

[p. 232]

 

PRASNA II, PATALA 5, SECTION 14.

1. [*1] We shall explain (the festival of) the Ashtaka.

2. The eighth day of the dark fortnight that follows after the full moon of Magha, is called Ekasntaka.

3. On the day before that Ashtaka, under (the Nakshatra) Anuradhas, in the afternoon he puts wood on the fire, strews southward-pointed and eastward-pointed Darbha grass around it, and turns rice out of four shallow cups over which he has laid one purifier, with (the Mantra), 'I turn out, impelled by the god Savitri, this cake prepared from four cups (of rice), which may drive away all suffering from the Fathers in the other world. On the impulse of the god Savitri, with the arms of the two Asvins, with Pushan's hands I turn thee out, agreeable to the fathers, the grandfathers, the great-grandfathers.'

4. [*4] With the same purifier he silently strains the Prokshani water; he silently sprinkles (with that water the rice and the vessels), silently husks (the rice), silently bakes it in four dishes like a Purodasa, sprinkles (Agya) on it, takes it from the fire, sprinkles (water) round (the fire) from right to left, and puts a piece of Udumbara wood on (the fire). With the (spoon called) Darvi which is made of Udumbara wood, he cuts off in one continual line which is directed towards south-east, (the Avadana portions)

[p. 233]

one after the other, spreading under and sprinkling over them (Agya), and sacrifices them, one after the other, in one continual line which is directed towards south-east, with (the Mantras), 'The mortars, the pressing-stones have made their noise, preparing the annual offering. Ekashtaka! May we be rich in offspring, in valiant sons, the lords of wealth. Svadha! Adoration!

'God Agni! The cake which is prepared with ghee and accompanied by (the word) svadha, that the Fathers may satiate themselves--(this our) offering carry duly, Agni. I, the son, sacrifice an oblation to my fathers. Svadha! Adoration!

'Here is a cake, Agni, prepared from four cups (of rice), with ghee, rich in milk, in wealth, in prosperity. May the Fathers gladly accept it all together; may it be well sacrificed and well offered by me. Svadha! Adoration!'

5. Then he makes oblations of (other) food with (the verses), 'The one who shone forth as the first,' 'The Ekashtaka, devoting herself to austerities,' 'She who shone forth as the first' (Taitt. Samhita IV, 3, 11, I. 3. 5).

6. Cutting off (the Avadanas destined for the Svishtakrit oblation) together from the cake and from the (other) food and mixing them with clarified butter, he makes an oblation thereof with (the formula), 'To Agni Kavyavahana Svishtakrit svadha! Adoration!'

7. [*7] That (cake) with ghee and honey and with the food (mentioned in Sutras 5. 6) he touches in the way prescribed for the Sraddha ceremony and puts

[p. 234]

down lumps (of it) according to the ritual of the Pinda offerings.

8. (The remains of) that (cake, &c.) he serves to learned Brahmanas.

9. He gives them food and presents as at the Sraddha ceremony.

10. [*10] The known (rites) down to the pouring out of the handfuls of water (are performed here) as at the monthly (Sraddha).

Footnotes

232:1 14, 1. Hiranyakesin describes only one Ashtaka, the Ekashtaka, while the other texts speak of three or four Ashtakas; comp. the quotations in the note on Sankhayana III, 12, 1.

232:4 The rules of the Srauta ritual regarding the baking of the Purodasa are given by Hillebrandt, Neu- and Vollmondsopfer, p. 43.

233:7 Comp. above, chap. II, 4; 12, 2 seq.

234:10 See above, chap. 12, 13.

 

 

PATALA 5, SECTION 15.

1. On the following day he sacrifices a cow to the Fathers.

2. [*2] Having put wood on the fire and strewn southward-pointed and eastward-pointed Darbha grass around it, he sacrifices the oblation for the touching of the animal (see below), with (the verse), 'This cow I touch for the Fathers; may my assembled fathers gladly accept it (which is offered) with fat and ghee, with the word svadha; may it satiate my fathers in the other world. Svadha! Adoration!' Then he touches (the cow) with one (blade of) sacrificial grass and with an unforked Vapasrapani of Udumbara wood, with (the formula), 'I touch thee agreeable to the Fathers.'

3. He sprinkles (the cow with water) with (the words), 'I sprinkle thee agreeable to the Fathers.'

4. [*4] When it has been sprinkled and fire has been

[p. 235]

carried round it, they kill it to the west of the fire, its head being turned to the west, its feet to the south.

5. [*5] After it has been killed, he silently 'strengthens' its sense-organs (by touching them) with water, and silently takes out the omentum, the heart, and the kidneys.

6. With the Vapasrapani of Udumbara wood he roasts the omentum; with spits of Udumbara wood the other (parts mentioned in Sutra 5) separately.

7. After he has roasted them, and has sprinkled Agya over them, and has taken them from the fire, he sprinkles water round (the fire) from right to left, puts a piece of Udumbara wood on (the fire), and sacrifices with a Darvi spoon of Udumbara wood the omentum, spreading under and sprinkling over it (Agya), with (the verse), 'Carry the omentum, Gatavedas, to the Fathers, where thou knowest them resting afar. May streams of fat flow to them; may their wishes with all their desires be fulfilled. Svadha! Adoration!'

8. [*8] He sacrifices the omentum entirely. The other parts (Sutra 5) he should offer to the Brahmanas and should feed them (with those parts of the cow).

9. When the food (for the Brahmanas) is ready, he cuts off (the Avadanas) together from the mess of boiled rice, and from the pieces of meat, and mixing them with clarified butter he makes oblations

[p. 236]

thereof with the verses, 'Behold the Ekashtaka, the giver of food with meat and ghee, (which is offered) with (the word) svadha. By the Brahmanas that food is purified. May it be an imperishable (blessing) to me! Svadha! Adoration!'

'The Ekashtaka, devoting herself to austerities, the consort of the year, exuberant (with milk), has poured forth milk. May you live on that milk, O Fathers, all together. May this (food) be well offered and well sacrificed by me! Svadha! Adoration!

'The image of the year' (Taitt. Samh. V, 7, 2, 1).

10. After he has sacrificed, he cuts off (the Avadanas) from the food and from the pieces of meat, and mixing them with clarified butter he makes an oblation with (the formula), 'To Agni Kavyavahana Svishtakrit svadha! Adoration!'

11. [*11] The known (rites) down to the pouring out of the handfuls of water (are performed here) as at the monthly (Sraddha).

12. [*12] The gifts of food and presents, however, are not necessary here.

13. [*13] On the following day, he prepares food for the Fathers with the rest of the meat, and sacrifices with (the two verses), 'Thou, Agni, art quick,' (and), Pragapati!' (see above, I, 1, 3, 5).

14. (= Sutra 11).

End of the Fifth Patala.

Footnotes

234:2 15, 2. On the Vapasrapani, comp. Katyayana VI, 5, 7; Asval.-Grihya I, II, 8. Comp. besides, Taitt. Samh. VI, 3, 6; Apastamba-Srauta-sutra VII, 8, 3; 12, 5 seq.

234:4 The Udikyas read, as Matridatta states, 'to the south of the fire.'

235:5 On the 'strengthening' of the sense-organs of an immolated victim, comp. Apastamba-Srauta-sutra VII, 18, 6 seq. Schwab, Thieropfer, 110.--On matasne, see Indische Studien, IX, 248; Schwab 127.

235:8 Possibly the reading of the Udikyas indicated by Matridatta, vyakritya instead of upakritya, is correct. The translation would be, 'With the rest, distributing it, &c.'

236:11 See above, chap. 14, 10.

236:12 See chap. 14, 9.

236:13 This is the so-called Anvashtakya ceremony.

 

[p. 237]

 

PRASNA II, PATALA 6 SECTION 16.

1. Now (follows) the Sravana ceremony.

2. On the day of that full moon which falls under (the Nakshatra) Sravana, after the evening Agnihotra he puts wood on the (third of the three Srauta fires, called the) Dakshinagni. One who has not set up the (Srauta) fires, (does the same with) the sacred domestic fire.

3. Then he procures unbroken grains, unbroken fried grains, coarsely ground grains, (leaves and blossoms) of the Kimsuka tree, collyrium and (other) salve, and Agya.

4. Having 'spread under' (Agya) in the (spoon called) Darvi, he cuts off (the Avadanas) of those kinds of food (mentioned in Sutra 3), mixes them with clarified butter, and sacrifices (with the formulas), 'Adoration to Agni the terrestrial, the lord of terrestrial beings! Svaha! Adoration to Vayu the all-pervading, the lord of aerial beings! Svaha! Adoration to Surya, the red one, the lord of celestial beings! Svaha! Adoration to Vishnu, the whitish one, the lord of the beings that dwell in the quarters (of the world). Svaha!'

5. [*5] He anoints the Kimsuka (flowers and leaves) with Agya, and sacrifices with (the Mantras), 'Devoured is the gadfly; devoured is thirst (?); devoured is the stinging worm.' 'Devoured is the stinging worm; devoured is thirst; devoured is the gadfly.'

 

[p. 238]

'Devoured is thirst; devoured is the gadfly; devoured is the stinging worm.'

6. He takes a water-pot and a handful of Darbha grass, goes forth, his face turned towards the east, spreads the Darbha grass out with its points towards the east, and makes four Bali-offerings on that (grass) with (the formulas), 'To the terrestrial Serpents I offer this Bali,' 'To the aerial, &c.; to the celestial, &c.; to the Serpents dwelling in the quarters (of the world),' &c.

7. Having given there collyrium and (other) salve (to the Serpents), he worships them with the Mantras, 'Adoration be to the Serpents' (Taitt. Samhita IV, 2, 8, 3).

8. [*8] He should take a water-pot and should at that distance in which he wishes the serpents not to approach, three times walk round his house, turning his right side towards it, and should sprinkle water round it with (the formulas), 'Beat away, O white one, with thy foot, with the fore-foot and with the hind-foot, these seven human females and the three (daughters) of the king's tribe.

'Within the dominion of the white one the Serpent has killed nobody. To the white one, the son of Vidarva, adoration!

'Adoration to the white one, the son of Vidarva!'

9. Then he worships the Serpents towards the different regions, one by one with (the corresponding section of) these Mantras, 'The convergent one thou art called, the eastern region' (Taitt. Samh. V, 5, 10, 1 seq.).

[p. 239]

10. From that time he daily makes the Bali-offerings till the full-moon day of Margasirsha.

11. Here the Kimsuka offerings (see  section 5) are not repeated.

12. The sprinkling (of water) round (the house) does not take place (see  section 8).

13. [*13] The last Bali he offers with (the words), 'Going to acquit myself, going to acquit myself.'

End of the Sixth Patala.

Footnotes

237:5 I am not sure about the translation of vikashti. Perhaps it is only a blunder for vitrishti, which is the reading of the Apastambiya Mantrapatha. Comp. Winternitz, Der Sarpabali, ein altindischer Schlangencult (Wien, 1888), p. 28.

238:8 Comp. Paraskara II, 14, 19.- In the first Mantra I read ragabandhavih; comp. the note on Par. II, 14, 4.

239:13 Some authorities understand, as Matridatta states, that he should offer the Bali only with the words as they stand in the Sutra, others prescribe the formula (comp.  section 6): 'To the terrestrial (aerial, &c.) Serpents I offer this Bali going to acquit myself, going to acquit myself.'

 

 

PRASNA II, PATALA 7, SECTION 17.

1. [*1] We shall explain the Agrahayani ceremony.

2. [*2] On the full-moon day of Margasirsha he puts wood on the fire, strews (Darbha grass) on the entire surface round the fire, cooks a mess of sacrificial food with milk, sprinkles it (with Agya), takes it from the fire, performs the rites down to the Vyahriti oblations, and sacrifices (four oblations) with (the following Mantras):

'This offering, the creeping of Ida, rich in ghee, moving and not moving, accept gladly, O Gatavedas.

[p. 240]

What domestic animals there are, of all shapes, all seven kinds of them: may they gladly dwell here and may they prosper. Svaha!

'The night which men welcome like a cow that comes to them, (the night) which is the consort of the year, may that (night) be auspicious to us. Svaha!

'Bringing bliss to the cattle, to the wife, bringing bliss by night and by day, may this (night) which is the consort of the year, be auspicious to us. Svaha!

'The full-moon night, bringing abundance, visiting one after another, dividing the months and fortnights: may this (night), the full one, protect us. Svaha!'

3. [*3] He sacrifices the oblation to Agni Svishtakrit with (the verse), 'Agni, make this (sacrifice) full that it may be well offered. Be victorious, O god, in all battles. Shine far and wide, showing us a wide path. Bestow on us long life, full of splendour and free from decay. Svaha!'

4. Then he washes his hands and touches the earth with (the formulas), 'In power I establish myself, in royalty. Among the horses I establish myself, among the cows. In the limbs I establish myself, in the self. In the Pranas I establish myself, in prosperity. In Heaven and Earth I establish myself, in sacrifice.

'May the three times eleven gods, the thirty-three, the gracious ones, whose Purohita is Brihaspati, on the impulse of the god Savitri--may the gods with (all) the gods give me bliss!'

5. The master of the house sits down at their southerly end,

[p. 241]

6. The other persons to the north,

7. According to their seniority.

8. They who know the Mantras among them, murmur the Mantras (which will be stated).

9. With (the verse), 'Be soft to us, O earth, free from thorns; grant us rest; afford us wide shelter' (Taitt. Ar. X, 1, 10), and with the two (verses), 'Verily of the mountains' (Taitt. Samh. II, 2, 12, 2. 3) they lie down on their right sides.

10. With (the verse), 'Up! with life' (Taitt. Samh. I, 2, 8, 1) they arise.

11. When they have arisen, they murmur, 'We have arisen; we have become immortal.'

12. In that way they (lie down and) arise that night three times.

13. [*13] Having served food to the Brahmanas and having caused them to say, 'An auspicious day! Hail! Good luck!' they rest that night.

End of the Seventh Patala.

Footnotes

239:1 17, 1. Comp. on the Agrahayani ceremony Sankhayana IV, 17; Paraskara III, 2, &c.; Winternitz, Sarpabali, 32 seq.

239:2 The first Mantra is very corrupt; comp. Atharva-veda III, 10, 6. Regarding the legend of Ida, who was procreated out of Manu's Pala-sacrifice, and 'came forth as if dripping, and clarified butter gathered on her step,' comp. Satapatha Brahmana I, 8, 1, 7 (M.M., India, what can it teach us? p. 136).

240:3 Comp. Taitt. Br. II, 4, I, 4; Paraskara III, 1, 3.

241:13 Here end the Grihya ceremonies,' says Matridatta. Dr. Kirste (Preface, p. viii), accordingly, believes that the three last chapters may be later additions. It may be observed in connection with this, that in the Apastambiya-Grihya, which throughout is so closely related to our text, the ceremonies of the Upakarana and Utsargana, of which these three chapters treat, are not described.

 

 

PRASNA II, PATALA 8, SECTION 18.

1. Now we shall explain the opening and the conclusion (of the annual course of study).

2. [*2] During the fortnight that precedes the Sravana

[p. 242]

full moon, when the herbs have appeared, under (the Nakshatra) Hasta or on the full-moon day (itself), the opening ceremony of the (annual course of) study (is performed).

3. Having put wood on the fire and performed the rites down to the Vyahriti oblations, he sacrifices (with his pupils) to the Rishis of the Kandas: 'To Pragapati, the Rishi of a Kanda, svaha! To Soma, the Rishi of a Kanda, svaha! To Agni, the Rishi of a Kanda, svaha! To the Visve devas, the Rishis of a Kanda, svaha! To Svayambhu, the Rishi of a Kanda, svaha!'--these are the Rishis of the Kandas. Or (he sacrifices) to the names of the Kandas, to the Savitri, to the Rig-veda, the Yagur-veda, the Sama-veda, the Atharva-veda, and to Sadasaspati.

4. Having (thus) sacrificed, they repeat the first three Anuvakas,

5. Or the beginnings of all Kandas.

6. He enters upon (sacrificing) the Gaya, &c. (oblations; see above, I, 1, 3, 8).

7. After all rites down to the Svishtakrit oblation have been performed, they stop studying three days or one day; then they should go on studying so as to commence where they have broken off: so say the teachers.

8. [*8] During the fortnight that precedes the Taishi full moon, under (the Nakshatra) Rohini or on the full-moon day (itself), the Utsarga (or conclusion of the term of study) is celebrated.

[p. 243]

9. [*9] (The teacher) with his pupils goes in an easterly or northerly direction, and where they find a pleasant water with a pleasant bathing-place, they dive into it and perform three suppressions of the breath with the Agharmarshana hymn (Rig-veda X, 190 = Taitt. Ar. X, 1, 13. 14.). Holding purifiers (i.e. Darbha blades) in their hands they bathe with the three (verses), 'Ye waters, ye are wholesome' (Taitt. Samh. IV, 1, 5, 1), with the four (verses), 'The gold-coloured, pure, purifying waters' (T.S.V, 6, 1, 1 seq.), and with the Anuvaka, '(Soma) which clears itself, the heavenly being' (Taitt. Br. I, 4, 8): giving the Darbha blades to each other and feigning to try to seize (??) each other.

10. Then they arrange on a pure spot that is inclined towards the east, seats of eastward-pointed Darbha grass, so that they end in the north--

Footnotes

241:2 18, 2. Sravanapaksha means, according to Matridatta, sravanapurvapaksha, [p. 242] and indeed the moon stands in conjunction with the Nakshatra Hasta only on one day of the first, not of the second, fortnight of the month Sravana (comp. the note on Asvalayana-Grihya III, 5, 2. 3). Comp. taishipakshasya rohinyam, below,  section 8.

242:8 As to taishipaksha, comp. the note on Sutra 2.

243:9 On the last words of this Sutra, Matridatta says, ditsanta iveti datum ikkhanta ivanyonyam prati. athava aditsanta iveti pathah. aditsanto mushnanta ivanyonyam.--Professor Kielhorn's text MS. has, atsamta ivanyonyam; Professor Buhler's text MS., ditsamta ivanyonyam.

 

 

PATALA 8, SECTION 19.

1. [*1] For Brahman, Pragapati, Brihaspati, Agni, Vayu, the Sun, the Moon, the Stars, king Indra, king Yama, king Varuna, king Soma, king Vaisravana, for the Vasus, the Rudras, the Adityas, the Visve devas, the Sadhyas, the Ribhus, the Bhrigus, the Maruts, the Atharvans, the Angiras: for these divine beings.

[p. 244]

2. [*2] Visvamitra, Gamadagni, Bharadvaga and Gautama, Atri, Vasishtha, Kasyapa: these are the seven Rishis.

3. Wearing their sacrificial cords below (round their body) they arrange towards the north, at a place that is inclined towards the north, seats of northward-pointed Darbha grass, so that they end in the east, for Visvamitra, Gamadagni, Bharadvaga, Gautama, Atri, Vasishtha, Kasyapa.

4. Between Vasishtha and Kasyapa they arrange (a seat) for Arundhati, (the wife of Vasishtha);

5. Towards the south, in a place inclined towards the east, for Agastya.

6. Then for the (following) teachers, ending with those who teach (only) one Veda (?), viz. for Krishna Dvaipayana, Gatukanya, Taruksha, Trinabindu, Varmin, Varuthin, Vagin, Vagasravas, Satyasravas, Susravas, Sutasravas, Somasushmayana, Satvavat, Brihaduktha Vamadev(y)a, Vagiratna, Haryagvayana, Udamaya, Gautama, Rinangaya, Ritangaya, Kritangaya, Dhanangaya, Babhru, Tryaruna, Trivarsha, Tridhatu, Sibinta, Parasara, Vishnu, Rudra, Skanda, Kasisvara, Gvara, Dharma, Artha, Kama, Krodha, Vasishtha, Indra, Tvashtri, Kartri, Dhartri, Dhatri, Mrityu, Savitri, Savitri, and for each Veda, for the Rig-veda, the Yagur-veda, the Sama-veda, the Atharva-veda, the Itihasa and Purana.

7. Towards the south, with their sacrificial cords suspended over their right shoulders, in a place inclined towards the south, they arrange seats of southward-pointed Darbha grass, so that they end in the west--

Footnotes

243:1 19, 1. According to Matridatta, they prepare a seat for Brahman with the words, 'For Brahman I prepare (a seat),' and so on. Comp. chap. 20, 3.

244:2 This is a frequently quoted versus memorialis.

 

[p. 245]

 

PATALA 8, SECTION 20.

1. [*1] For Vaisampayana, Palingu, Tittira [sic], Ukha, Atreya, the author of the Pada-text, Kaundinya the author of the commentary, for the authors of the Sutras, for Satyashadha (Hiranyakesin), for the handers-down of the text, for the teachers, the Rishis, the hermits dwelling in the woods, the chaste ones, for those who have only one wife.

2. They prepare (seats) each for his own fathers and maternal ancestors.

3. With (the words), 'For N.N. I prepare (a seat); for N.N. I prepare (a seat)' (he prepares) a seat.

4. With (the words), 'I satiate N.N.; I satiate N.N.' (he makes offerings of) water.

5. With (the words), 'Adoration to N: N.! Adoration to N.N.!' (he offers) perfumes, flowers, incense, and lamps.

6. With (the words), 'To N.N. svaha! To N.N. svaha!' (he offers) food.

7. With (the words), 'I satiate N.N.; I satiate N.N.' (he offers) water with fruits in it.

8. Having worshipped them with (the words), 'Adoration to N.N.! Adoration to N.N.!'--

9. [*9] Having put wood on the fire to the west of the surface (on which he had performed the Tarpana),

[p. 246]

and having performed the rites down to the Vyahriti oblations (&c., as above, chap. 18, 3-7).

10. With the two (verses), 'From joint to joint,' 'Thou who with a hundred' (Taitt. Samh. IV, 2, 9, 2) they plant Durva grass at the shore of the water.

11. They stir up waves in the water and run a race in an easterly or northerly direction until they lose their breath.

12. When they have returned (from that race? or when they have returned from the whole ceremony to the village?) they offer cakes, coarsely ground grain, and boiled rice to the Brahmanas.

13. [*13] The same (rites are repeated) when they have finished the study of the whole Veda, with the exception of the planting of Durva grass, of (stirring up) the water, and of the race.

14. Thus they satiate daily (after the Brahmayagna) the gods, the Rishis, and the Fathers with water; they satiate them with water.

End of the Hiranyakesi-sutra.

Footnotes

245:1 20, 1. The Kandanukrama of the Atreyi-sakha, which has been printed by Professor Weber in his edition of the Taittiriya Samhita, vol. ii, p. 356, shows that the dative Palingave ought to be corrected to Paingaye. The 'vrittikara' is there called not Kaundinya, but Kundina.

245:9 There is only one difference between the text of this Sutra [p. 246] and that of chap. 18, 3-7: instead of hutva trin adito'nuvakan adhiyate (18, 4) we read here, hutva prathamenanuvakenadhiyate, which I believe must be translated, 'Having sacrificed with the first Anuvaka, they recite (that Anuvaka).' Matridatta says, hutva prathamottamanuvakam adhiyate.

246:13 See Sutras 10 and 11.

 

[p. 247]

 

GRIHYA-SUTRA OF APASTAMBA.

[p. 248] [p. 249]

 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

 

TO THE

 

GRIHYA-SUTRA OF APASTAMBA.

THE short treatise of Apastamba on the Grihya ritual forms one Prasna of the great corpus of the Apastambiya-Kalpa-sutra (see Sacred Books, vol. ii, p. xii) and stands, among the Grihya texts, in closest connection with the Hiranyakesi-Grihya-sutra. The chief difference between these two Sutras, both belonging to the Taittiriya School of the Black Yagur-veda, consists herein, that Apastamba, just as has been stated above [*1] with regard to Gobhila, gives only the rules for the performance of the Grihya rites without the Mantras, which are contained in a special collection, the Mantrapatha, standing by the side of the Sutras: Hiranyakesin, on the other hand, follows the more usual practice, as adopted by Sankhayana, Asvalayana, Paraskara, of interweaving the description of the ceremonies with the text of the corresponding Mantras. As to the relation in which the Apastambiya-sutras stand to the Mantrapatha, there is, so far as I can see, no reason why we should not extend the theory which we have tried to establish with regard to Gobhila, to the evidently parallel case of Apastamba: the Sutras presuppose the existence of the Mantrapatha, just as the latter text seems to presuppose the Sutras.--The questions regarding the historical relation of Apastamba to Hiranyakesin have been treated of by Professor Buhler in his Introduction to Apastamba's Dharma-sutra, S.B.E., vol. ii, pp. xxiii seq.

I have here to thank Dr. Winternitz, to whom we are indebted for an excellent edition of the Apastambiya-Grihya-sutra, for having placed at my disposal, before publication,

[p. 250]

the proof-sheets of his edition, and for lending me his copy of the Mantrapatha as well as of the commentary of Haradatta. The kindness of the same scholar has enabled me to make use of Professor Eggeling's copy of the first part of Sudarsanarya's commentary and of his own copy of the second part of the same work.

Footnotes

249:1 See above, pp. <page 3> seq.

 

[p. 251]

 

GRIHYA-SUTRA OF APASTAMBA,

 

PATALA 1, SECTION 1.

1. [*1] Now (follow) the ceremonies (the knowledge of) which is derived from practice (and not from the Sruti).

2. They should be performed during the northern course of the sun, on days of the first fortnight (of the month), on auspicious days,

3. With the sacrificial cord suspended over (the sacrificer's) left shoulder.

4. (The rites should be performed) from left to right.

5. The beginning should be made on the east side or on the north side,

6. And also the end.

7. [*7] Ceremonies belonging to the Fathers (are performed) in the second fortnight (of the month),

8. With the sacrificial cord suspended over the right shoulder,

9. From right to left,

10. Ending in the south.

11. Ceremonies occasioned by special occurrences (are performed) according as their occasions demand.

[p. 252]

12. [*12] Having set the fire in a blaze, he strews eastward-pointed Darbha grass around it,

13. Or eastward-pointed and northward-pointed (grass);

14. Southward-pointed at sacrifices to the Fathers,

15. Or southward-pointed and eastward-pointed.

16. To the north of the fire he strews Darbha grass and (on that) he places the vessels (required for sacrifice) upside-down, two by two, if referring to ceremonies directed to the gods,

17. All at once, if to men,

18. One by one, if to the Fathers.

19. [*19] The preparation of the (blades used as) 'purifiers,' the measure of their length, the preparation of the Prokshani water, and the sprinkling of the vessels are the same here as at the sacrifices of the new and full moon, (but are performed) in silence.

20. [*20] To the west of the fire he pours water into a vessel over which he has laid (two grass blades called) purifiers, purifies (the water) three times with two northward-pointed purifiers, holds it on a level with his nose and mouth, places it to the north of the fire on Darbha grass, and covers it with Darbha grass.

21. [*21] On the south side he causes a Brahmana to sit down on Darbha grass.

22. He melts the Agya, pours it, to the west of the fire, into the Agya-pot, over which he has laid two purifiers, draws coals (out of the sacrificial fire) towards the mirth, puts (the Agya) on them, throws

[p. 253]

light on it by means of a burning (grass-blade), throws two Darbha points into it, moves a firebrand round it three times, takes it from the fire towards the north, sweeps the coals back (into the fire), purifies (the Agya) three times with two northward-pointed purifiers, moving them backward and forward, and throws the purifiers into the fire.

Footnotes

251:1 1, 1-11. The Paribhashas for the Pakayagnas.

251:7 7-10. Comp. 7 with 2, 8 with 3, 9 with 4, 10 with 6.

252:12 12 seq. Description of the regular form of a Pakayagna.

252:19 Comp. Srauta-sutra I, 11, 6 seqq.

252:20 This is the Pranita water.

252:21 The Brahman.

 

 

PATALA 1, SECTION 2.

1. He warms at the fire the implement with which he sacrifices, wipes it off with Darbha blades, warms it again, sprinkles it (with water), puts it down, touches the Darbha blades with water, and throws them into the fire.

2. [*2] As paridhis (or pieces of wood laid round the fire) yoke-pins are used at the marriage, the Upanayana, the Samavartana, the parting of the (wife's) hair, the tonsure of the child's hair, the cutting of the beard, and at expiatory ceremonies.

3. He sprinkles water round the fire, on the south side from west to east with (the words), 'Aditi, give thy consent!' on the west side from south to north with 'Anumati, give thy consent!' on the north side from west to east with 'Sarasvati [sic], give thy consent!' all around with 'God Savitri, give thy impulse!'

4. At ceremonies belonging to the Fathers (water is sprinkled) only all round (the fire), silently.

5. [*5] Having put a piece of wood on the fire, he

[p. 254]

offers the two Aghara oblations as at the sacrifices of the new and full moon, silently.

6. [*6] Then he offers the two Agyabhaga oblations, over the easterly part of the northerly part (of the fire) with (the words), 'To Agni Svaha!' over the easterly part of the southerly part (another oblation) exactly like the preceding one, with (the words), 'To Soma Svaha!'

7. [*7] Having offered the chief oblations (belonging to each sacrifice) according to prescription, he adds the following oblations, viz. the Gaya, Abhyatana, Rashtrabhrit oblations, the oblation to Pragapati, the Vyahritis one by one, the oblation to (Agni) Svishtakrit with (the following formula), 'What I have done too much in this ceremony, or what I have done here too little, all that may Agni Svishtakrit, he who knows, make well sacrificed and well offered. Svaha!'

8. [*8] The sprinkling (of water) round (the fire is repeated) as above; the Mantras are altered so as to say, 'Thou hast given thy consent,' 'Thou hast given thy impulse.'

9. The designation 'Pakayagna' is used of ceremonies connected with worldly life.

10. [*10] There the ritual based on the Brahmana (holds good),

[p. 255]

11. [*11] (To which the words allude), 'He sacrifices twice; he wipes off (his hand) twice; he partakes twice (of the sacrificial food); having gone away he sips (out of the Sruk) and licks off (the Sruk).'

12. All seasons are fit for marriage with the exception of the two months of the sisira season, and of the last summer month.

13. All Nakshatras which are stated to be pure, (are fit for marriage);

14. And all auspicious performances.

15. And one should learn from women what ceremonies (are required by custom).

16. [*16] Under the Invakas (Nakshatra), (the wooers who go to the girl's father) are sent out: such wooers are welcome.

Footnotes

253:2 2, 2. On the paridhi woods, comp. chiefly Hillebrandt, Neu-und Vollmondsopfer, 66 seq.

253:5 The Srauta rules on the two Agharas are given Srauta-sutra II, 12, 7; 14, 1.

254:6 Comp. Srauta-sutra II, 18, 5; Hillebrandt, loc. cit., p. 106, note 3.

254:7 On the Gaya, Abhyatana, Rashtrabhrit formulas, comp. Paraskara I, 5, 7 seq.; Hiranyakesin I, I, 3, 7 seq.; Taitt. Samhita III, 4, 4-7.--The last formula occurs also in Asvalayana I, 10, 23; Hiranyakesin I, I, 3, 6, &c.

254:8 Comp. above, Sutra 3.

254:10 According to Haradatta, this Sutra would imply that wheresoever the ritual described in the preceding Sutras holds good, [p. 255] another ritual based on the Brahmana, and more especially on the treatment of the Agnihotra in the Brahmana, may be used in its stead.

255:11 Comp. Taitt. Brahmana II, 1, 4, 5; Satapatha Brahmana II, 3, 1, 18. 21.--At the Agnihotra the sacrificer, having wiped off the Sruk with his hand, wipes off the hand on the Barhis or on the earth (Apast.-Sraut. VI, 10, 11; 11, 4; Katyayana IV, 14, 20). As to the following acts alluded to in this Sutra, comp. Apastamba VI, 11, 4. 5; 12, 2.

255:16 On the Nakshatra Invakas, comp. Section 3, Sutra 4. This Sutra forms a Sloka-hemistich, on which Haradatta observes, 'This verse has not been made by the Sutrakara.'

 

 

PATALA 1, SECTION 3.

1. [*1] Under the Maghas (Nakshatra) cows are provided;

[p. 256]

2. Under the Phalguni (Nakshatra) marriage is celebrated.

3. [*3] A daughter whom he wishes to be dear (to her husband), a father should give in marriage under the Nishtya (Nakshatra); thus she becomes dear (to her husband); she does not return (to her father's) house: this is an observance based on a Brahmana.

4. [*4] The word Invakas means Mrigasiras; the word Nishtya means Svati.

5. [*5] At the wedding one cow;

6. In the house one cow:

7. With the (first cow) he should prepare an Argha reception for the bridegroom as for a guest,

8. With the other (the bridegroom [?] should do so) for a person whom he reveres.

9. These are the occasions for killing a cow: (the arrival of) a guest, (the Ashtaka sacrifice offered to) the Fathers, and marriage.

10. [*10] Let (the wooer) avoid in his wooing a girl that sleeps, or cries, or has left home.

11. [*11] And let him avoid one who has been given (to another), and who is guarded (by her relations), and one who looks wicked (?), or who is a most

[p. 257]

excellent one (?), or (who is like the fabulous deer) sarabha (?), a hunch-back, a girl of monstrous appearance, a bald-headed girl, a girl whose skin is like a frog's (?), a girl who has gone over to another family (?), a girl given to sensual pleasures (?), or a herdess, or one who has too many friends, or who has a fine younger sister, or one whose age is too near to that of the bridegroom (?).

12. [*12] Girls who have the name of a Nakshatra, or of a river, or of a tree, are objectionable.

13. And all girls in whose names the last letter but one is r or l, one should avoid in wooing.

14. If possible, he should place (the following) objects hidden before the girl, and should say to her, 'Touch (one of these things).'

15. (The objects are), different kinds of seeds mixed together, loose earth from (the kind of sacrificial altar called) vedi, an earth-clod from a field, cow-dung, and an earth-clod from a cemetery.

16. [*16] If she touches one of the former (objects, this portends) prosperity as characterized (by the nature of what she has touched).

17. The last is regarded as objectionable.

18. Let him marry a girl of good family and character, with auspicious characteristics, and of good health.

19. Good family, a good character, auspicious characteristics, learning, and good health: these are the accomplishments of a bridegroom.

20. A wife who is pleasing to his mind and his

[p. 258]

eyes, will bring happiness to him; let him pay no attention to the other things: such is the opinion of some.

Footnotes

255:1 3, 1, 2. Comp. Rig-veda X, 85, 13; Atharva-veda XIV, i, 13; Kausika-sutra 75; Ramayana I, 71, 24; 72, 13; Weber, Die vedischen Nachrichten von den Naxatra, II, 364 seq. These parallel passages most decidedly show that in Sutra 2 we ought to read vyuhyate, not vyuhyate.

256:3 Comp. Taittiriya Brahmana I, 5, 2, 3.

256:4 Comp. Sutra 3, and above, Section 2, Sutra 16.

256:5 5-8. Comp. Sankhayana-Grihya I, 12, 10. It is clear that with the first cow the bride's father has to receive the bridegroom. The 'house' mentioned in Sutra 6 seems to be the house of the newly-married couple. In the expression 'whom he reveres,' 'he,' according to the commentaries, is the bridegroom.

256:10 This Sutra forms a half-sloka.

256:11 Most expressions in this Sutra are quite doubtful, and their translation rests on the explanations of the commentators (see pp. 44, 45 of Dr. Winternitz's edition), which are evidently for the most part only guesses.

257:12 12, 13. These Sutras would require only slight alterations to make a sloka.

257:16 The seeds mean offspring, and so on.

 

 

PATALA 2, SECTION 4.

1. Let him send out as his wooers friends who have assembled, who are versed in the Mantras.

2. He should recite over them the first two verses (Mantrap. I, 1, 1. 2).

3. When he himself has seen (the bride), let him murmur the third (verse; M. I, 1, 3).

4. With the fourth (M. I, 1, 4) let him behold her.

5. Let him seize with his thumb and fourth finger a Darbha blade, and let him wipe (therewith) the interstice between her eye-brows with the next Yagus (M. I, 1, 5), and let him throw it away towards the west.

6. If an omen occurs (such as the bride's or her relations' weeping), let him murmur the next (verse; M. I, 1, 6).

7. With the next (verse; M. I, 1, 7) let him send an even number of persons who have assembled there, and who are versed in the Mantras, to fetch water.

8. [*8] With the next Yagus (M. I, 1, 8) he places a round piece of Darbha net-work on her head; on that, with the next (verse; M. I, 1, 9) he places a right yoke-hole; on this hole he lays with the next (verse; M. I, 1, 10), a piece of gold, and washes her with the next five verses (M. I, 2, 1-5), (so that the

[p. 259]

water runs over that gold and through the yoke-hole); with the next (verse; M. I, 2, 6) he causes her to dress in a fresh garment, and with the next (M. I, 2, 7) he girds her with a rope.

9. Then he takes hold of her with the next (verse; M. I, 2, 8) by her right hand, leads her to the fire, spreads a mat, west of the fire, so that the points of the blades in it are directed towards the north, and on this mat they both sit down, the bridegroom to the north.

10. After the ceremonies have been performed from the putting of wood on the fire down to the Agyabhaga oblations, he recites over her the first two (verses of the third Anuvaka).

11. Then he should take with his right hand, palm down, her right hand which she holds palm up.

12. If he wishes that only daughters may be born to him, he should seize only the fingers (without the thumb);

13. If he wishes that only sons may be born to him, the thumb.

14. He takes (her hand) so as just to touch her thumb and the little hairs (on her hand),

15. With the four verses, 'I take thy hand' (Mantrap. I, 3, 3-6).

16. He then makes her step forward with her right foot, to the north of the fire, in an easterly or northerly direction, with (the formula), 'One step for sap' (M. I, 3, 7).

17. At her seventh step he murmurs, 'Be a friend' (M. I, 3, 14).

Footnotes

258:8 4, 8. As to the last sentence of this Sutra, comp. the statements collected by Hillebrandt, Neu- and Vollmondsopfer, p. 59.

 

[p. 260]

 

PATALA 2, SECTION 5.

1. Having before the sacrifice gone round the fire, so that their right sides are turned towards it,

2. [*2] They sit down in their former position, and while she takes hold of him, he offers the oblations (indicated by the) next (Mantras), with (the Mantras), 'To Soma, the acquirer of a wife, Svaha!' (M. I, 4, I-16), one oblation with each Mantra.

3. [*3] He then causes her, to the north of the fire, to tread with her right foot on a stone, with (the verse), 'Tread' (M. I, 5, 1).

4. Having 'spread under' Agya into her joined hands, he pours roasted grain twice (into them), and sprinkles Agya over it.

5. Some say that an uterine relation of hers pours the grain (into her hands).

6. [*6] He (?) sacrifices (that grain) with (the verse), 'This wife' (M. I, 5, 2).

7. [*7] Having gone round the fire, with the right side turned towards it, with the next three (verses; M. I, 5, 3-5) he makes her tread on the stone as above (M. I, 5, 6).

8. And the oblation (is performed) with the next (verse; M. I, 5, 7).

9. (Then follow) again the circumambulation (M. I, 5, 8-10), the injunction to tread on the stone

[p. 261]

(I, 5, 11), and the oblation with the next (verse; I, 5, 12);

10. (Then) the circumambulation again (I, 5, 13-15).

11. [*11] He enters upon the performance of the Gaya and following oblations.

12. [*12] Having performed (the rites) down to the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire), and having untied the rope with the next two verses (I, 5, 16. 17), he should then make her depart (from her father's house in a vehicle), or should have her taken away.

13. Having put that fire (with which the marriage rites have been performed, into a vessel), they carry it behind (the newly-married couple).

14. It should be kept constantly.

15. If it goes out, (a new fire) should be kindled by attrition,

16. Or it should be fetched from the house of a Srotriya.

17. Besides, if (the fire) goes out, one of them, either the wife or the husband, should fast.

18. Or he may sacrifice with the next (verse; M. I, 5, 18), and not fast.

19. The next (verse; M. I, 6, 1) is for putting the chariot (on which the young couple is to depart), in position;

20. With the next two (verses; M. I, 6, 2. 3), he puts the two animals to the chariot;

21. First the right one.

22. When she mounts (the chariot), he recites over her the next (verses; M. I, 6, 4-7).

[p. 262]

23. With the next (verse; M. I, 6, 8), he spreads out two threads in the wheel-tracks (in which the chariot is to go), a dark-blue one in the right (track), a red one in the left.

24. With the next (verses; M. I, 6, 9-11), he walks on these (threads).

25. And when they pass by bathing-places, posts, or cross-roads, let him murmur the next (verse; M. I, 6, 12).

Footnotes

260:2 5, 2. See 4, 9.

260:3 See below, IV, 10, 9.

260:6 'The action of sacrificing belongs to the bridegroom; the hands of the wife represent the sacrificial vessel.' Haradatta.--'It is the bridegroom who sacrifices the grain with the verse, "This wife."' Sudarsanarya.

260:7 See above, Sutra 3.

261:11 11, 12. See Section 2, Sutras 7. 8; Section 4, Sutra 8.

261:12 12 seq. Comp. Hiranyakesin I, 7, 22, 1 seq.

 

 

PATALA 2, SECTION 6.

1. The next (verse; M. I, 6, 13), he recites over a boat (with which they are going to cross a river).

2. And let the wife, when she is crossing, not see the crew.

3. When they have crossed, let him murmur the next (verse; M. I, 6, 14).

4. If they have to pass over a cemetery, or if any article (which they carry with them), or their chariot is damaged, the ceremonies from the putting of wood on the fire down to the Agyabhaga oblations are performed, and while she takes hold of him, he offers the oblations (indicated by the) next (Mantras; M. I, 7, 1-7), then he enters upon the performance of the Gaya and following oblations, and performs (the rites) down to the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire).

5. If they pass by trees with milky sap or by other trees that serve as marks, by rivers or by deserts, he should murmur the next two (verses; M. I, 7, 8. 9), according to the characteristics in them (which refer to these different cases).

6. With the next (verse) he shows her the house(M. I, 7, 10).

[p. 263]

7. With the next two (verses; M. I, 7, 11. 12) he unyokes the two animals; the right one first.

8. Having, with the next (verse; M. I, 8, 1), spread out, in the centre of the house, a red bull's skin with the neck to the east, with the hair up, he causes her to recite the next (verse; M. I, 8, 2), while he makes her enter the house, (which she does) with her right foot.

9. And she does not stand on the threshold.

10. In the north-east part of the house the ceremonies from the putting of wood on the fire down to the Agyabhaga oblations are performed, and while she takes hold of him, he offers the oblations (indicated by the) next (Mantras; M. I, 8, 3-15); then he enters upon the performance of the Gaya and following oblations, and performs (the rites) down to the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire). Then they sit down with the next (verse; M. I, 9, 1) on the skin, the bridegroom to the north.

11. He then places with the next (verse; M. I, 9, 2), the son of a wife who has only sons and whose children are alive, in her lap, gives fruits to the (child) with the next Yagus (M. I, 9, 3), and murmurs the next two (verses; M. I, 9, 4-5). Then he (and his wife) observe silence until the stars appear.

12. When the stars have appeared, he goes out (of the house with her) in an easterly or northerly direction, and shows her the polar star and (the star) Arundhati with the next two verses (M. I, 9, 6-7), according to the characteristics (contained in those verses).

[p. 264]

 

 

PATALA 3, SECTION 7.

1. [*1] He then makes her offer the sacrifice of a Sthalipaka sacred to Agni.

2. The wife husks (the rice grains out of which this Sthalipaka is prepared).

3. After he has cooked (the Sthalipaka), and has sprinkled (Agya) over it, and has taken it from the fire towards the east or the north, and has sprinkled (Agya) over it while it stands (there near the fire), (the ceremonies) from the putting of wood on the fire down to the Agyabhaga oblations (are performed), and while she takes hold of him, he sacrifices of that Sthalipaka.

4. The 'spreading under' and the sprinkling over (of Agya are done) once; two Avadanas (or cut-off portions are taken).

5. Agni is the deity (of the first oblation); the offering is made with the word Svaha.

6. [*6] Or he may sacrifice after having picked out, once, a portion (of the sacrificial food with the Darvi spoon).

7. Agni Svishtakrit is the second (deity).

8. (At the Svishtakrit oblation) the 'spreading under' and taking an Avadana are done once, the sprinkling over (of Agya) twice.

9. The Avadana for the first deity (is taken) out of the middle (of the Sthalipaka);

10. It is offered over the centre (of the fire).

[p. 265]

11. (The Avadana) for the second (deity is taken) from the northern part (of the Sthalipaka);

12. It is offered over the easterly part of the northerly part (of the fire).

13. [*13] Having silently anointed (a part of) the Barhis (by dipping it) into the remains both (of the Sthalipaka and the Agya) in the way prescribed (in the Srauta ritual) for the (part of the Barhis called) Prastara, he throws (that part of the Barhis) into the fire.

14. [*14] (The rule regarding) the second sprinkling (of water round the fire) is valid (here).

15. He gives (the remains of) that (sacrificial food) with butter to a Brahmana to eat--

16. [*16] Whom he reveres. To that (Brahmana) he makes the present of a bull.

17. In the same way, with the exception of the sacrificial gift, they should sacrifice a Sthalipaka from then onwards, on the days of the new and full moon, after having fasted.

18. Some say that a vessel full (of grain) is the sacrificial gift.

19. [*19] From then onwards he should offer morning and evening with his hand these two oblations (to Agni and to Agni Svishtakrit) of (rice) grains or of barley.

[p. 266]

20. The deities are the same as at the Sthalipaka (just described).

21. Some say that the first oblation in the morning is sacred to Surya.

22. [*22] Before and after (those oblations) the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire is performed) as stated above.

23. [*23] By the sacrifice of the new and full moon the other ceremonies have been explained (the knowledge of) which is derived from practice.

24. The deities (of those rites) are as stated (with regard to each particular case), having their place between Agni (Sutra 5) and Svishtakrit (Sutra 7).

25. [*25] The sacrifice (of a cow) on the arrival of a guest (should be performed as stated below) without alterations.

26. [*26] (The deities) of the Vaisvadeva ceremony are the Visve devas,

27. [*27] Of ceremonies performed on full-moon days, the full-moon day on which they are performed.

Footnotes

264:1 7, 1 seq. Hiranyakesin I, 7, 23, 2 seq.

264:6 As to the technical meaning of upahatya or upaghatam, comp. the note on Gobhila I, 8, 2; Grihya-samgraha I, 111.

265:13 Comp. Srauta-sutra III, 5, 9 seqq.--On the prastara, see Hillebrandt, Neu- and Vollmondsopfer, 64. 142. 146.

265:14 See above, I, 2, 8. The upahomas prescribed above, I, 2, 7, are not performed here, but the second parishekana is.

265:16 I have altered in my translation the division of the two sentences. Comp. Hiranyakesin I, 7, 23, 5-6, and the note there.

265:19 The two regular daily oblations corresponding to the Agnihotra of the Srauta ritual.

266:22 See I, 2, 3. 8.

266:23 See I, 1, 1.

266:25 See below, V, 13, 16.

266:26 See Apastamba Dharma-sutra II, 2, 3, 1 (S.B.E., vol. ii, p. 103).

266:27 For instance, the Sravani paurnamasi is the deity of the ceremony described below, VII, 18, 5 seq.

 

 

PATALA 3, SECTION 8.

1. [*1] At the opening and concluding ceremonies of the Vedic study, the Rishi who is indicated (as the

[p. 267]

Rishi of the Kanda which they study, is the deity to whom the ceremony belongs),

2. And in the second place Sadasaspati (cf. Mantrap. I, 9, 8).

3. They reject a sacrifice performed by a wife or by one who has not received the Upanayana initiation, and a sacrifice of salt or pungent food, or of such food as has an admixture of a despised sort of food.

4. Sacrifices connected with special wishes and Bali sacrifices (should be performed) as stated (even against the clauses of the last Sutra).

5. Whenever the fire flames up of itself, he should put two pieces of wood on it with the next two (verses: M. I, 9, 9-10),

6. Or with (the two formulas), 'May fortune reach me! May fortune come to me!'

7. Let him notice the day on which he brings his wife home.

8. (From that day) through three nights they should both sleep on the ground, they should be chaste, and should avoid salt and pungent food.

9. Between their sleeping-places a staff is interposed, which is anointed with perfumes and wrapped round with a garment or a thread.

10. In the last part of the fourth night he takes up the (staff) with the next two (verses; M. I, 10, 1-2), washes it and put it away; then (the ceremonies) from the putting of wood on the fire down to the Agyabhaga oblations (are performed), and while she takes hold of him, he sacrifices the oblations (indicated by the) next (Mantras; M. I, 10, 3-9); then he enters upon the performance of the Gaya and following oblations, and performs (the

[p. 268]

rites) down to the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire). Then he makes her sit down to the west of the fire, facing the east, and pours some Agya of the remains (of those oblations) on her head with the (three) Vyahritis and the word Om as the fourth (M. I, 10, 10-13). Then they look at each other with the next two verses (M. I, 11, 1-2), according to the characteristics (contained in those verses); with the next verse (M. I, 11, 3) he besmears the region of their hearts with remains of Agya; then he should murmur the next three verses (I, 11, 4-6), and should murmur the rest (of the Anuvaka; I, 11, 7-11) when cohabiting with her.

11. Or another person should recite (the rest of the Anuvaka) over her, (before they cohabit).

12. [*12] During her (first) monthly illness he instructs her about the things forbidden (to menstruous women), contained in the Brahmana, in the section, 'A menstruous woman with whom,' &c.

13. After the appearance of her monthly illness, he should, when going to cohabit with her after her illness, recite over her, after she has bathed, the next verses (M. I, 12, 1-13, 4).

Footnotes

266:1 8, 1. Haradatta observes that at the kandopakarana and kandasamapana the Rishi of that kanda, at the general adhyayopakarana and samapana all kandarshis, should be worshipped.

268:12 Taittiriya Samhita II, 5, 1, 6 seq.

 

 

PATALA 3, SECTION 9.

1. Each following night with an even number, from the fourth (after the beginning of her monthly illness) till the sixteenth, brings more excellent offspring to them, if chosen for the (first) cohabiting after her illness; thus it is said.

2. If he sneezes or coughs while going about on

[p. 269]

business, he should touch water and should murmur the two following (verses; M. I, 13, 5. 6) according to the characteristics (which they contain).

3. In the same way with the next (Mantras--M. I, 13, 7-10--he should address the following objects), according to the characteristics (which those Mantras contain): a conspicuous tree, a heap of excrements, the skirt (of his garment) which is blown against him by the wind, and a shrieking bird.

4. One (for instance, the wife's father) who wishes that the hearts of both (husband and wife) may be in accord should observe chastity through at least three nights and should prepare a Sthalipaka. Then (the ceremonies) from the putting (of wood) on (the fire) down to the Agyabhaga oblations (are performed), and while the wife takes hold of him, he sacrifices of the Sthalipaka the oblations (indicated by the) next (Mantras; M. I, 14, 1-7); then he enters upon the performance of the Gaya and following oblations, and performs (the rites) down to the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire). (The remains of) the (sacrificial food) with butter, he should give to eat to an even number of Brahmanas, at least to two, and should cause them to pronounce wishes for his success.

5. [*5] When the moon, on the following day, will be in conjunction with Tishya, she strews three times seven barley-grains around (the plant) Clypea Hernandifolia with (the formula), 'If thou belongest to Varuna, I redeem thee from Varuna. If thou belongest to Soma, I redeem thee from Soma.'

[p. 270]

6. On the following day she should set upright (the plant) with the next (verse; M. I, 15, 1), should recite the next three (verses; M. I, 15, 2-4) over it, should tie (its root) with the next (verse; M. I, 15, 5) to her hands so that (her husband) does not see it, and should, when they have gone to bed, embrace her husband with her arms, with the verse alluding to the word upadhana ('putting on;' M. I, 15, 6).

7. Thus he will be subject to her.

8. By this (rite) also (a wife) overcomes her co-wives.

9. For this same purpose she worships the sun daily with the next Anuvaka (M. I, 16).

10. If a wife is affected with consumption or is otherwise sick, one who has to observe chastity, should rub her limbs with young lotus leaves which are still rolled up, and with lotus roots, with the next (formulas, limb by limb) according to the characteristics (contained in those formulas; M. I, 17, 1-6), and should throw away (the leaves and roots) towards the west.

11. With the next (verses; M. I, 17, 7-10) he should give the wife's garment (which she has worn at the wedding [?]) to (a Brahmana) who knows this (ceremony).

Footnotes

269:5 9, 5. Comp. Gobhila II, 6, 6 seq.

 

 

PATALA 4, SECTION 10.

1. We shall explain the Upanayana (or initiation of the student).

2. Let him initiate a Brahmana in the eighth year after the conception,

3. A Raganya in the eleventh, a Vaisya in the twelfth year after the conception.

[p. 271]

4. Spring, summer, autumn: these are the (fit) seasons (for the Upanayana), corresponding to the order of the castes.

5. (The boy's father) serves food to Brahmanas and causes them to pronounce auspicious wishes, and serves food to the boy. (The teacher?) pours together, with the first Yagus (of the next Anuvaka, warm and cold) water, pouring the warm water into the cold, and moistens (the boy's) head with the next (verse; M. II, 1, 2).

6. [*6] Having put three Darbha blades into his hair (towards each of the four directions) (the teacher [?]) shaves his hair with the next four (verses; M. II, 1, 3-6) with the different Mantras, towards the different (four) directions.

7. [*7] With the following (verse, M. II, 1, 7, somebody) addresses him while he is shaving.

8. Towards the south, his mother or a Brahmakarin strews barley-grains on a lump of bull's dung; with this (dung) she catches up the hair (that is cut off), and puts it down with the next (verse; M. II, 1, 8) at the root of an Udumbara tree or in a tuft of Darbha grass.

9. [*9] After (the boy) has bathed, and (the ceremonies) from the putting (of wood) on (the fire) down to the Agyabhaga oblations (have been performed), he causes him to put a piece of Palasa wood on the

[p. 272]

fire with the next (verse; M. II, 2, 1), and makes him tread with his right foot on a stone to the north of the fire, with (the verse), 'Tread' (M. II, 2, 2).

10. Having recited the next two (verses; M. II. 2, 3. 4) over a garment that has been spun and woven on one day, and has caused him, with the next three (verses; M. II. 2, 5-7), to put it on, he recites over him, after he has put it on, the next (verse; M. II, 2, 8).

11. [*11] He ties thrice around him, from left to right, a threefold-twisted girdle of Munga grass with the next two (verses; M. II. 2, 9. 10), and (gives him) a skin as his outer garment with the next (verse; II, 2, 11).

12. [*12] To the north of the fire (the teacher) spreads out Darbha grass; on that he causes (the boy) to station himself with the next (verse; M. II. 3, 1), pours his joined hands full of water into (the boy's) joined hands, makes him sprinkle himself three times with the next (verse; M. II, 3, 2), takes hold of his right hand with the next (formulas; M. II, 3, 3-12), gives him with the next (formulas; M. II, 3, 13-23) in charge to the deities (mentioned in those Mantras), initiates him with the next Yagus (M. II, 3, 24), and murmurs into his right ear the (Mantra), 'Blessed with offspring' (II, 3, 25).

Footnotes

271:6 10, 6, 7. The difference which Haradatta makes between the teacher who begins to shave him (pravapati) and the barber who goes on with shaving (vapantam) seems too artificial.

271:7 Haradatta: The teacher addresses the barber, &c.--Sudarsanarya: The mother of the boy or a Brahmakarin [comp. Sutra 8] . . . addresses the teacher who shaves him.

271:9 Comp. above, II, 4, 3.

272:11 Comp. Apast. Dharma-sutra I, I, 2, 33; I, 3, 3 seq.

272:12 As to the words, 'he initiates him' (upanayati), comp. Sankhayana II, 2, 11. 12; Asvalayana I, 20, 4 &c.

 

 

PATALA 4, SECTION 11.

1. The boy says, 'I am come to be a student' (II, 3, 26).

[p. 273]

2. The other (i.e. the teacher) has to ask; the boy has to answer (II, 3, 27-30).

3. The other murmurs the rest (of the Anuvaka),

4. And causes the boy to repeat (the Mantra) which contains wishes for himself (II, 3, 32).

5. [*5] (The rites) down to the Agyabhagas have been prescribed.

6. Having then caused him to sacrifice the oblations (indicated in the) next (Mantras; M. II, 4, 1-11), he enters upon (the performance) of the Gaya and following oblations.

7. Having performed (the rites) down to the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire), he puts down, to the west of the fire, a bunch of northward-pointed grass; on that (the teacher) who performs the initiation, sits down with the next Yagus (M. II, 4, 12).

 

8. The boy, sitting to the east (of him), facing the west, seizes with his right hand (the teacher's) right foot and says, 'Recite the Savitri, Sir!'

9. He recites (the Savitri) to him, 'That (glorious splendour) of Savitri' (Taitt. Samh. I, 5, 6, 4; M. 4, 13);

10. Pada by Pada, hemistich by hemistich, and the whole (verse).

11. (When repeating the Savitri Pada by Pada, he pronounces) the Vyahritis singly at the beginning or at the end of the Padas;

12. In the same way (the first and the second Vyahriti at the beginning or at the end) of the hemistichs; the last (Vyahriti, when he repeats) the whole verse.

13. With the next Mantra (M. II, 4, 14) the boy touches his upper lip;

[p. 274]

14. With the next (II, 4, 15) both his ears;

15. With the next (II, 5, 1) he takes up the staff.

16. [*16] The staff of a Brahmana is made of Palasa wood, that of a Raganya of a branch of the Nyagrodha tree, so that the downward-turned end (of the branch) forms the tip (of the staff), that of a Vaisya of Badara or Udumbara wood.

17. Some state (only), without any reference to caste, that the staff should be made of the wood of a tree:

18. After (the teacher) has made him repeat (the formula), 'My memory' (M. II, 5, 2), and he has bestowed an optional gift on his teacher, and (the teacher) has made him arise with (the formula, M. II, 5, 3), 'Up, with life!' (the student) worships the sun with the next (Mantras; II, 5, 4).

19. If (the teacher) wishes, 'May this (student) not be estranged from me,' let him take (the student) by the right hand with the next (verse; II, 5, 6).

20. They keep that fire (used at the Upanayana) three days,

21. And (during that time) salted and pungent food should be avoided.

22. Having wiped (with his hand wet) around (the fire) with (the formula), 'Around thee' (M. II, 6, 1), he should put (twelve) pieces of wood on that (fire) with the next Mantras (II, 6, 2-13).

23. In the same way also on another (fire, when the Upanayana fire is kept no longer),

24. Fetching fuel regularly from the forest.

25. With the next (formula--M. II, 6, 14--the teacher) instructs (the student in his duties).

[p. 275]

26. [*26] On the fourth day (after the Upanayana the teacher) takes the garment (of the student) for himself with the next (verse; M. II, 6, 15), having made him put on another (garment).

Footnotes

273:5 11, 5. See above, Section 10, Sutra 9.

274:16 16, 17. These Sutras are identical with Dharma-sutra I, 1, 2, 38 (S.B.E., vol. ii, p. 9).

275:26 The garment which the teacher takes for himself is that mentioned above, IV, 10, 10.

 

 

PATALA 5, SECTION 12.

1. Having studied the Veda, when going to take the bath (which signifies the end of his studentship), he enters a cow-shed before sunrise, hangs over its door a skin with the hair inside, and sits there.

2. On that day the sun should not shine upon him.

3. [*3] At noon, after (the ceremonies) from the putting (of wood) on the fire down to the Agyabhaga oblations (have been performed), he puts a piece of Palasa wood on (the fire) with the next (verse; M. II, 7, 1), sits down to the west of the fire on a mat or on eraka grass, recites the next (verse, II, 7, 2) over a razor, and hands it over to the barber with the next Yagus (II, 7, 3). (The rites) beginning with the pouring together of (warm and cold) water down to the burying of the hair are the same as above (comp. M. II, 7, 4).

4. He sits down behind the cow-shed, takes the girdle off, and hands it over to a Brahmakarin.

5. The (Brahmakarin) hides it with the next Yagus (II, 7, 5) at the root of an Udumbara tree or in a tuft of Darbha grass.

6. [*6] With water of the description stated above he

[p. 276]

bathes with the six next (verses; II, 7, 6-11), and with the next (II, 7, 12) he cleanses his teeth with a stick of Udumbara wood.

7. Having bathed and shampooed his body with such ingredients as are used in bathing, (aromatic powder, &c.),

8. He puts on with the next Yagus (M. II, 7, 13) a fresh under garment, and anoints himself, after having given the salve in charge of the deities with the next (Mantras, II, 7, 14), with the next (verse, II, 7, 15) with sandal salve which is scented with all kinds of perfumes. With the next (verse, II, 7, 16) he moves about a gold pellet with its setting, which is strung on a string, three times from left to right in a water-pot; with the next (verse, II, 7, 17) he ties the (pellet) to his neck; in the same way, without Mantras, he ties a pellet of Badara wood to his left hand, and repeats the rites stated above with a fresh upper garment, with the (verses), 'May the rich' (comp. above, IV, 10, 10; M. II, 7, 18).

9. To the skirt (of that garment) he ties two earrings, puts them into the (sacrificial spoon called) Darvi, offers the oblations (indicated by the) next (Mantras; M. II, 8, 1-8), pouring the Agya over (the ear-rings), and enters upon (the performance of) the Gaya and following oblations.

10. Having performed (the ceremonies) down to the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire), he should tie (one of the ear-rings) with the same (verses) to his right ear, and with the same (verses one) to his left ear.

11. In the same way he should with the following (formulas, M. II, 8, 9-9, 5), according to the characteristics (contained in them), (put) a wreath on his

[p. 277]

head, anoint (his eyes), look into a mirror, (put on) shoes, (and should take) a parasol and a staff.

12. He keeps silence until the stars appear.

13. When the stars have appeared, he goes away towards the east or north, worships the quarters (of the horizon) with the next hemistich, and the stars and the moon with the next (M. II, 9, 6).

14. Having spoken with a friend he may go where he likes.

Footnotes

275:3 12, 3. See above, IV, 10, 5-8.

275:6 See IV, 10, 5.

 

 

PATALA 5, SECTION 13.

1. Now this (is) another (way for performing the Samavartana). He bathes silently at a bathing-place and puts silently a piece of wood on (the fire).

2. [*2] He sits down on a bunch of grass, as stated above (comp. M. II, 9, 7), at a place where they are going to honour him (with the Argha reception).

3. A king and a chieftain (sit down) in the same way (as a Brahmana), with the next two (formulas, M. II, 9, 8. 9), according to the characteristics (contained in them).

4. (The host) announces (to the guest), 'The water for washing the feet!'

5. [*5] (The guest) should recite the next (verse, II, 9, 10) over (that water) and should stretch out the right foot first to a Brahmana, the left to a Sudra.

6. Having touched the person who washes him, he should touch himself (i.e. his own heart) with the next (formula, M. II, 9, II).

7. (The host, taking the Argha water) in an

[p. 278]

earthen vessel which he holds with two bunches of grass, announces (to the guest), 'The Argha water!'

8. (The guest) should recite the next (formula, II, 9, 12) over (that water) and should murmur the next Yagus (II, 9, 13), while a part (of the water) is poured over his joined hands.

9. Over the rest (of the water) which is poured out towards the east, he recites the next (verse, M. II, 9, 14).

10. (The host) pours together curds and honey in a brass vessel, covers it with a larger (brass cover), takes hold of it with two bunches of grass, and announces (to the guest), 'The honey-mixture!'

11. Some take three substances, (those stated before) and ghee.

12. Some take five, (the three stated before), and grains, and flour.

13. The guest recites the next two (formulas, M. II, 10, 1. 2) over (the honey-mixture) and sips water with the two Yagus (II, 10, 3. 4) before (eating) and afterwards; with the next (verse, II, 10, 5) he should partake three times (of the food) and should give the remainder to a person towards whom he is kindly disposed.

14. A king or a chieftain should only accept it and (give it) to his Purohita.

15. (The host) announces the cow with (the word), 'The cow!'

16. After the guest has recited the next (formula, M. II, 10, 6) over (the cow, the host) cools its omentum, and having performed the 'spreading under' and the sprinkling over (of Agya), he sacrifices it with the next (verse, M. II, 10, 7) with a Palasa leaf from the middle or the end (of the stalk).

[p. 279]

17. If the guest chooses to let (the cow) loose, he murmurs the next (formulas, II, 10, 8-11) in a low voice (and says) loudly, 'Om! Let it loose!' (II, 10, 12).

18. (In this case) he recites the next (formulas, M. II, 10, 13-17) in a low voice over the food which is announced to him (instead of the cow), (and says) loudly, 'Om! Make it ready!' (II, 10, 18).

19. For his teacher, for a Ritvig, for his father-in-law, for a king he ought to perform this (Arghya ceremony) as often as they visit his house, if at least one year has elapsed (since they came last).

20. For a renowned teacher (of the Veda the ceremony should be performed) once.

Footnotes

277:2 13, 2. See above, IV, II, 7.

277:5 Comp. Asvalayana-Grihya I, 24, 11. 12.

 

 

PATALA 6, SECTION 14.

1. The Simantonnayana (or parting of the pregnant wife's hair, is performed) in her first pregnancy, in the fourth month.

2. (The husband) serves food to Brahmanas and causes them to pronounce auspicious wishes; then, after (the ceremonies) from the putting (of wood) on the fire down to the Agyabhaga oblations (have been performed), he offers the oblations (indicated in the) next (Mantras, M. II, 11, 1-8), while (the wife) takes hold of him, and enters upon the (performance) of the Gaya and following oblations.

3. Having performed (the rites) down to the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire), he makes her sit down to the west of the fire, facing the east, and parts her hair upwards (i.e. beginning from the front) with a porcupine's quill that has three white spots,

[p. 280]

with three Darbha blades, and with a bunch of unripe Udumbara fruits, with the Vyahritis or with the two next (verses, II, 11, 9. 10).

4. He says to two lute-players, 'Sing!'

5. Of the next two (verses, II, 11, 11. 12) the first (is to be sung on this occasion) among the (people of the) Salvas.

6. [*6] The second (is to be used) for Brahmanas; and the river near which they dwell is to be named.

7. [*7] He ties barley-grains with young shoots (to the head of the wife); then she keeps silence until the stars appear.

8. When the stars have appeared, he goes (with his wife) towards the east or north, touches a calf, and murmurs the Vyahritis; then she breaks her silence.

9. The Pumsavana (i.e. the ceremony to secure the birth of a male child) is performed when the pregnancy has become visible, under the constellation Tishya.

10. From a branch of a Nyagrodha tree, which points eastward or northward, he takes a shoot with two (fruits that look like) testicles. The putting (of wood) on the fire, &c., is performed as at the Simantonnayana (Sutra 2).

11. He causes a girl who has not yet attained maturity to pound (the Nyagrodha shoot) on an upper mill-stone with another upper mill-stone, and to pour water on it; then he makes his wife lie

[p. 281]

down on her back to the west of the fire, facing the east, and inserts (the pounded substance) with his thumb into her right nostril, with the next Yagus (II, 11, 13).

12. Then she will give birth to a son.

13. Here follows the ceremony to secure a quick deliverance.

14. With a shallow cup that has not been used before, he draws water in the direction of the river's current; at his wife s feet he lays down a Turyanti plant; he should then touch his wife, who is soon to be delivered, on the head, with the next Yagus (II, 11, 14), and should sprinkle her with the water, with the next (three) verses (II, 11, 15-17).

15. Yadi garayu na pated evamvihitabhir evadbhir uttarabhyam (II, 11, 18. 19) avokshet.

Footnotes

280:6 Asvalayana I, 14, 7; Paraskara I, 15, 8. Comp. Zeitschrift der D. M. Gesellschaft, XXXIX, 88.

280:7 7, 8. Sudarsanarya mentions that instead of the singular, 'She keeps silence, she breaks her silence,' some read the dual, so that the husband and his wife are referred to.

 

 

PATALA 6, SECTION 15.

1. [*1] After he has touched the new-born child with the Vatsapra hymn (Taitt. Samh. IV, 2, 2; M. II, 11, 20), and has taken him on his lap with the next Yagus (M. II, II, 21), with the next (three) (verses--II, 11, 22; 12, 1. 2--one by one) he addresses the child, kisses him on his head, and murmurs (the third verse) into his right ear.

2. And he gives him a Nakshatra name.

3. That is secret.

4. He pours together honey and ghee; into this (mixture) he dips a piece of gold which he has tied with a noose to a Darbha blade. With the next (three) formulas (II, 12, 3-5) he gives the boy (by

[p. 282]

means of the piece of gold, some of the mixture) to eat. With the next five (verses, II, 12, 6-10) he bathes him. Then he pours curds and ghee together and gives him this (mixture which is called) 'sprinkled butter' (prishadagya) to eat out of a brass vessel, with the Vyahritis to which the syllable 'Om' is added as the fourth (II, 12, 11-14). The remainder he should mix with water and pour out in a cow-stable.

5. With the next (verse, M. II, 13, 1) he places (the child) in the mother's lap; with the next (II, 13, 2) he causes her to give him her right breast; with the next two (verses, II, 13, 3. 4) he touches the earth, and after (the child) has been laid down, (he touches him) with the next (formula, II, 13, 5).

6. With the next Yagus (II, 13, 6) he places a water-pot at (the child's) head, sacrifices mustard seeds and rice-chaff with his joined hands three times with each of the next (formulas, II, 13, 7-14, 2), repeating each time the word Svaha, and says (to the people who are accustomed to enter the room in which his wife lies), 'Whenever you enter, strew silently (mustard seeds with rice-chaff) on the fire.'

7. This is to be done until the ten days (after the child's birth) have elapsed.

8. On the tenth day, after (the mother) has risen and taken a bath, he gives a name to the son. The father and the mother (should pronounce that name first).

9. (It should be a name) of two syllables or of four syllables; the first part should be a noun; the second a verb; it should have a long vowel (or) the Visarga at the end, should begin with a sonant, and contain a semi-vowel.

[p. 283]

10, Or it should contain the particle su, for such a name has a firm foundation; thus it is said in a Brahmana.

11. A girl's name should have an odd number of syllables.

12. [*12] When (the father) returns from a journey, he should address the child and kiss him on his head with the next two (verses, M. II, 14, 3. 4), and should murmur the next Mantras (II, 14, 5) into his right ear.

13. With the next Yagus (II, 14, 6) he addresses a daughter (when returning from a journey).

Footnotes

281:1 15, 1. We ought to read uttarabhir, not uttarabhyam. Comp. below, Sutra 12.

283:12 Comp. above, Sutra 1.

 

 

PATALA 6, SECTION 16.

1. In the sixth month after the child's birth he serves food to Brahmanas and causes them to pronounce auspicious wishes; then he should pour together curds, honey, ghee, and boiled rice, and should give (the mixture) to the boy to eat, with the next (four) Mantras (II, 14, 7-10);

2. (He should feed him) with partridge, according to some (teachers).

3. In the third year after his birth the Kaula (or tonsure is performed) under (the Nakshatra of) the two Punarvasus.

4. [*4] Brahmanas are entertained with food as at the initiation (Upanayana).

5. [*5] The putting (of wood) on the fire, &c. (is performed) as at the Simantonnayana.

6. [*6] He makes (the boy) sit down to the west of

[p. 284]

the fire, facing the east, combs his hair silently with a porcupine's quill that has three white spots, with three Darbha blades, and with a bunch of unripe Udumbara fruits; and he arranges the locks in the fashion of his ancestral Rishis,

7. Or according to their family custom.

8. [*8] The ceremonies beginning with the pouring together of (warm and cold) water and ending with the putting down of the hair are the same (as above; comp. M. II, 14, 11).

9. He puts down the razor after having washed it off.

10. [*10] The ceremony is (repeated) three days with the (same razor). (Then) the rite is finished.

11. (The father) gives an optional gift (to the Brahmana who has assisted).

12. The Godana (or the ceremony of shaving the beard, is performed) in the sixteenth year, in exactly the same way or optionally under another constellation.

13. [*13] Or he may perform the Godana sacred to Agni.

14. [*14] Some prescribe the keeping of a vow through one year in connection with the Godana.

[p. 285]

15. The difference (between the Kaula and the Godana) is that (at the Godana) the whole hair is shaven (without leaving the locks).

16. [*16] According to the followers of the Sama-veda he should 'touch water.'

Footnotes

283:4 16, 4. See above, IV, 10, 5.

283:5 See above, VI, 14. 2.

283:6 Comp. VI, 14, 3.

284:8 See IV, 10, 5-8.

284:10 I translate as if the words tena tryaham and karmanivrittih formed two Sutras.

284:13 'Having performed the same rites as at the opening of the study of the Agneya-kanda, he performs an Upasthana to the deities as taught with regard to the Sukriyavrata.' Haradatta.--'After the ceremonies down to the Agyabhagas have been performed, one chief oblation of Agya is offered with the formula, "To Agni, the Rishi of the Kanda, svaha!"' Sudarsanarya.

284:14 Comp. the statements given in the note on Gobhila III,

285:16 The udakopasparsana according to the rite of the Samavedins is described by Gobhila, I, 2, 5 seqq.

 

 

PATALA 7, SECTION 17.

1. The ground for building a house should be inclined towards the south-west. He elevates the surface and sweeps (the earth) with a broom of Palasa wood or of Sami wood, with the next (verse, M. II, 15, 1), in the same (south-west) direction;

2. In the same way three times.

3. He touches the ground, which has thus been prepared, with the next (verse, II, 15, 2). Then he has the pits for the posts dug from left to right, throws the earth (from the pits) towards the inside (of the building-ground), and erects the right doorpost with the next two (verses, M. II, 15, 3. 4)

4. In the same way the other (door-post).

5. Having erected after (the door-posts) the other (posts) in the same order in which (the pits) have been dug, he recites the next Yagus (II, 15, 5) over the ridge-pole when it is placed (on the posts),

6. The next (six) (Yagus formulas, II, 15, 6-11) over the (house when it is) finished, according to the characteristics contained in the single formulas.

7. He sets a piece of Palasa wood or of Sami wood on fire, takes the fire up (in a dish) with the next verse (II, 15, 12), carries it to the house with

[p. 286]

the next Yagus (II, 15, 13), and places the fire in the north-eastern part of the house with the next (II, 15, 14).

8. The place for the water-barrel is to the south of that spot.

9. He strews there Darbha grass, so that its points are turned in every direction, pours rice and barley-grains over the (grass) with the next (verse, II, 15, 15), and thereon he places the water-barrel.

10. With the next (Yagus, II, 15, 16) he pours four potfuls of water into it.

11. If (the barrel) breaks, he recites the next (verse, II, 15, 17) over it.

12. After the ceremonies from the putting of wood on the fire down to the Agyabhaga oblations have been performed, he offers the (four) oblations (indicated by the) next (Mantras; II, 15, 18-21); then he enters upon the performance of the Gaya and following oblations.

13. Having performed (the rites) down to the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire), he should sprinkle (water) with a water-pot around the house or the resting-place on the inside, with the next Yagus (II, 15, 22) three times from left to right; then he should serve cakes, flour, and boiled rice to the Brahmanas.

 

 

PATALA 7, SECTION 18.

1. [*1] When a boy is attacked by the dog-demon (i.e. epilepsy), (the father or another performer of the ceremony), having devoted himself to austerities

[p. 287]

(such as fasting), covers him with a net. Then he causes a gong to be beaten or a bell to be rung, takes (the boy) by another way than the door into the gambling-hall, raises (the earth in the middle of the hall) at the place in which they gamble, sprinkles it (with water), casts the dice, lays (the boy) on his back on the dice, and besprinkles him with his joined hands with curds and salt, with the next (eleven) (formulas, II, 16, 1-11), in the morning, at noon, and at night.

2. Then he will get well.

3. [*3] Over a boy who suffers from the 'Sankha' disease, (the father, &c.) having devoted himself to austerities, should recite the next two (verses, II, 16, 12. 13), and should pour (water) on his head with a water-pot with the next (verse, II, 16, 14), in the morning, at noon, and at night.

4. Then he will get well.

5. [*5] On the day of the full moon of (the month) Sravana after sunset a Sthalipaka (is offered).

6. [*6] After the ceremonies down to the Agyabhaga oblations have been performed in the same way as at the fortnightly sacrifices, he sacrifices of the Sthalipaka, and with each of the next (formulas, II, 16, 15-17) he offers with his joined hands Kimsuka flowers.

7. With the next (three) verses (II, 17, 1-3) (he offers) pieces of Aragvadha wood (Cathartocarpus fistula);

[p. 288]

8. Then the Agya oblations (indicated by the) next (Mantras, II, 17, 4-7).

9. Then he enters upon the performance of the Gaya and following oblations.

10. Having performed (the rites) down to the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire), he silently takes the objects required (for the rites which he is going to perform), goes out in an easterly or northerly direction, prepares a raised surface, draws on it three lines directed towards the east and three towards the north, pours water on the (lines), and lays (an offering of) flour (for the serpents) on them, with the next (formula, II, 17, 8).

11. Silently (he lays down) unground (?) grain, roasted grain, collyrium, ointment, (the fragrant substance called) Sthagara, and Usira root.

12, With the next (formulas, II, 17, 9-26) he should worship (the serpents), should sprinkle water round (the oblations), should return (to his house) silently without looking back, should sprinkle (water) with a water-pot from left to right, thrice around the house or the resting-place on the inside, with the two verses, 'Beat away O white one, with thy foot' (II, 17, 27. 28), and should offer food to the Brahmanas.

Footnotes

286:1 18, 1. Comp. Paraskara I, 16, 24; Hiranyakesin II, 2, 7.

287:3 'Sankhin is a person attacked by such a disease that he utters cries like the sound of a conch trumpet (sankha).' Haradatta.

287:5 Here follows a description of the Sarpabali.

287:6 Comp. above, III, 7, 2-3.

 

 

PATALA 7, SECTION 19.

1. The unground grain (which is left over, see above, VII, 18, 11) they give to the boys to eat.

2. Let him repeat in the same way this Bali-offering of whatever food he has got or of flour, from that day to full moon of (the month) Margasirsha.

[p. 289]

3. On the day of the full moon of Margasirsha after sunset a Sthalipaka (is offered as above, VII, 18, 5).

4. In the Mantra for the Bali-offering he changes (the word 'I shall offer' into) 'I have offered.'

5. Then he does not offer (the Bali) any longer.

6. (Now follows) the Agrayana sacrifice (or partaking of the first-fruits) of one who has not set up the (Srauta) fires.

7. He prepares a Sthalipaka of the fresh fruits, sacrifices to the deities of the (Srauta) Agrayana sacrifice with (Agni) Svishtakrit as the fourth, fills his mouth with grains, swallows them, sips water, forms a lump of the boiled (sacrificial) food, and throws it up with the next Yagus (II, 18, 1) to the summit of the house.

8. [*8] (Now follows) the 'redescent' in the winter.

9. With the next Yagus (II, 18, 2) they 'redescend' (or take as their sleeping-place a layer of straw instead of the high bedsteads which they have used before). With the next Yagus formulas (II, 18, 3-7) they lie down on a new layer (of straw) on their right sides,

10. The father to the south, the mother to the north (of him), and so the others, one after the other from the eldest to the youngest.

11. After he has arisen, he touches the earth with the next two (verses, II, 18, 8. 9).

12. In the same way the lying down, &c., is repeated thrice.

13. [*13] Having prepared a Sthalipaka for Lana and

[p. 290]

one for Kshetrapati, he goes out in an easterly or northerly direction, prepares a raised surface, (and then follow the ceremonies) beginning with the putting of wood on the fire.

14. To the west of the fire he builds two huts.

Footnotes

289:8 Comp. the note on Sankhayana IV, 17, 1.

289:13 The description of the sulagava sacrifice, which here follows, agrees in most points with the statements of Hiranyakesin II, 3, 8.

 

 

PATALA 7, SECTION 20.

1. [*1] With the next (verse, II, 18, 10) he has the Isana led to the southern (hut),

2. With worldly words the 'bountiful goddess' to the northern (hut),

3. To the middle (between the two huts) the 'conqueror.'

4. He gives them water to drink in the same order in which they have been led (to their places), takes three portions of boiled rice (from the Sthalipaka prepared for Isana), takes (these portions of rice) to the fire, makes (the three gods) touch them with the next (formulas, II, 18, II-13), sacrifices of these portions, to each god of the portion which belongs to him, with the next (formulas, II, 18, 14-30), cuts off (Avadanas) from all (portions), and sacrifices with the next Yagus (II, 18, 31) to Agni Svishtakrit.

5. Having worshipped (the god Isana) with the next Yagus (II, 18, 32), he distributes with the next (formulas, II, 18, 33-39) leaves together with portions of boiled rice, two (leaves) with each (Yagus), then ten to the divine hosts (II, 18, 40), and ten to the (divine hosts) that follow (and are referred to in the next Yagus, II, 18, 41).

[p. 291]

6. With the next (formulas, II, 18, 42-45) he does the same as before (i.e. he distributes two leaves with each Mantra).

7. Having formed a lump of boiled rice, he puts it into a basket of leaves, and with the next Yagus (II, 18, 46) hangs it up on a tree.

8. Here he should murmur the Rudra texts (Taitt. Samh. IV, 5),

9. Or the first and last (Anuvaka).

10. He places his cows around the fire so that the smoke (of the sacrifice) may reach them.

11. [*11] With his firmly shut fist full of Darbha grass he besprinkles (them) with scents; the bull first.

12. He should perform a sacrifice to Kshetrapati, without a fire, in the path used by his cows.

13. He has (the Kshetrapati) led to his place in the same way as the Isana (see above, Sutra 1).

14. He puts (portions of boiled rice) into four or seven leaves, naming (the god).

15. [*15] Let him sacrifice quickly; the god has a strong digestion (?).

16. With the next two (verses, II, 18, 47. 48) he does worship (to Kshetrapati).

17. The Sthalipaka (belonging to Isana) he gives to the Brahmanas to eat;

18. That belonging to Kshetrapati his uterine relations eat,

19. Or as is the custom in their family.

Footnotes

290:1 20, 1-3. Comp. Hiranyak. II, 3, 8, 2-4. Haradatta explains the Isana, the midhushi, and the gayanta as images of the three gods.

291:11 On grumushti, see the notes of the commentators, p. 93 of Dr. Winternitz's edition, and the commentary on Taitt. Samhita V, 4, 5, 3 (Indische Studien, XII, 60).

291:15 I have translated here as in Hiranyak. II, 3, 9, 11. Haradatta and Sudarsanarya give another explanation of the words 'pako devah;' see p. 93 of the edition.

 

[p. 292]

 

PATALA 8, SECTION 21.

1. [*1] The times for the monthly Sraddha are in the second fortnight (of the month), as they are stated.

2. Let him feed, without regard of (worldly) purposes, pure Brahmanas, versed in the Mantras, who are not connected with himself by consanguinity or by their Gotra or by the Mantras (such as his teacher or his pupils), an odd number, at least three.

3. He makes oblations of the food (prepared for the Brahmanas) with the next (verses, II, 19,1-7);

4. Then the Agya oblations (indicated by the) next (Mantras, II, 19, 8-13).

5. Or invertedly (i.e. he offers Agya with the verses referred to in Sutra 3, and food with those referred to in Sutra 4).

6. Let him touch the whole (food) with the next (formulas, II, 19, 14-16).

7. Or the (single) prepared (portions of food destined) for the single Brahmanas.

8. Having caused them with the next (formula, II, 20, 1) to touch (the food, he gives it to them to eat).

9. When they have eaten (and gone away), he goes after them, circumambulates them, turning his right side towards them, spreads out southward-pointed Darbha grass in two different layers, pours water on it with the next (formulas, II, 20, 2-7), distributes the Pindas, ending in the south, with the next (formulas, II, 20, 8-13), pours out water as before with the next (formulas, 14-19), worships (the

[p. 293]

ancestors) with the next (formulas, II, 20, 20-23), sprinkles with the next (verse, 24) water three times from right to left round (the Pindas) with a water-pot, besprinkles the vessels, which are turned upside down, repeating the next Yagus (25) at least three times without taking breath, sets up the vessels two by two, cuts off (Avadanas) from all (portions of food), and eats of the remains at least one morsel with the next Yagus (26).

10. Of the dark fortnight that follows after the full moon of Magha, the eighth day falls under (the constellation of) Gyeshtha: this day is called Ekashtaka.

11. In the evening before that day (he performs) the preparatory ceremony.

12. [*12] He bakes a cake of four cups (of rice).

13. (The cake is prepared) in eight dishes (like a Purodasa), according to some (teachers).

Footnotes

292:1 21, 1. Comp. Dharmasastra II, 7, 16, 8 seq.; Sacred Books, vol. ii, p. 139. Comp. Professor Buhler's remarks, vol. ii, p. xiv.

293:12 12, 13. Comp. Hiranyak. II, 5, 14, 3 seq.

 

 

PATALA 8, SECTION 22.

1. [*1] After the ceremonies down to the Agyabhaga oblations have been performed in the same way as at the fortnightly sacrifices, he makes with his joined hands oblations of the cake with the next (verse, II, 20, 27).

2. [*2] The rest (of the cake) he makes ready, divides (it) into eight parts and offers it to the Brahmanas.

[p. 294]

3. On the following day he touches a cow with a Darbha blade, with the words, 'I touch thee agreeable to the Fathers.'

4. [*4] Having silently offered five Agya oblations, and having cooked, the omentum of the (cow), and performed the 'spreading under' and the sprinkling over (of Agya), he sacrifices (the omentum) with the next (verse, II, 20, 28) with a Palasa leaf from the middle or the end (of the stalk).

5. (He sacrifices) boiled rice together with the meat (of the cow) with the next (verses, II, 20, 29-35),

6. Food prepared of meal with the next (verse, II, 21, 1),

7. Then the Agya oblations (indicated by the) next (Mantras, II, 21, 2-9).

8. (The rites) from the Svishtakrit down to the offering of the Pindas are the same (as at the Sraddha).

9. Some (teachers) prescribe the Pinda offering for the day after the Ashtaka.

10. Here (follows) another (way for celebrating the Ashtaka sacrifice). He sacrifices curds with his joined hands in the same way as the cake.

11. Having left over from the meat of the (cow, see above, 3. 4) as much as is required, on the day after (the Ashtaka) (he performs) the rite of the Anvashtaka.

12. This rite has been explained in the description of the monthly Sraddha.

13. If he goes out in order to beg for something,

[p. 295]

let him murmur the next (Mantras, II, 21, 10-16) and then state his desire.

14. If he has obtained a chariot, he has the horses put to it, lets it face the east, and touches with the next (verse, II, 21, 17) the two wheels of the chariot or the two side-pieces.

15. With the next Yagus (II, 21, 18) he should mount, and drive with the next (verse, II, 21, 19) towards the east or north, and should then drive off on his business.

16. Let him mount a horse with the next (formulas, II, 21, 20-30),

17. An elephant with the next (formula, II, 21, 31).

18. [*18] If any harm is done him by these two (beasts), let him touch the earth as indicated above.

19. If he is going to a dispute, he takes the parasol and the staff in his left hand.

Footnotes

293:1 22, 1. Comp. above, VII, 18, 6.

293:2 I believe that seshah means the rest of the cake. The word 'siddhah' possibly refers to such preparations of the food as are indicated in Hiranyak. II, 5, 14, 7. Haradatta understands seshah as the rest of the rites (tantrasya seshah): 'The rest of the rites is [p. 294] the regular one, without alterations:' it must be admitted that the expressions used by Hiranyak. II, 5, 14, 10 would agree well with this explanation.

294:4 See above, V, 13, 16.

295:18 See VII, 19, 11. On reshane, comp. below, 23, 9.

 

 

PATALA 8, SECTION 23.

1. Having sacrificed, with his right hand, a fist full of chaff with the next (verse, II, 21, 32), he should go away and murmur the next (verse, 33).

2. Over an angry person let him recite the two next (formulas, II, 22, 1. 2); then his anger will be appeased.

3. [*3] One who wishes that his wife should not be touched by other men, should have big living centipedes ground to powder, and should insert (that powder) with the next (formula, II, 22, 3), while she is sleeping, into her secret parts.

4. For success (in the generation of children)

[p. 296]

let him wash (his wife) with the urine of a red-brown cow.

5. For success (in trade) let him sacrifice with the next (verse--II, 22, 4--some portion) from the articles of trade which he has in his house.

6. [*6] If he wishes that somebody be not estranged from him, let him pour his own urine into the horn of a living animal, and sprinkle (it) with the next two (verses, II, 22, 5. 6) three times from right to left around (the person) while he is sleeping.

7. In a path which servants or labourers use to run away, he should put plates (used for protecting the hands when holding a hot sacrificial pan) on (a fire), and should offer the oblations (indicated by the) next (Mantras, II, 22, 7-10).

8. If a fruit falls on him from a tree, or a bird befouls him, or a drop of water falls on him when no rain is expected, he should wipe that off with the next (Mantras, II, 22, 11-13), according to the characteristics (contained in these Mantras).

9. If a post of his house puts forth shoots, or if honey is made in his house (by bees), or if the footprint of a dove is seen on the hearth, or if diseases arise in his household, or in the case of other miracles or prodigies, let him perform in the new-moon night, at dead of night, at a place where he does not hear the noise of water, the rites from the putting (of wood) on the fire down to the Agyabhaga oblations, and let him offer the oblations (indicated in the) next (Mantras, II, 22, 14-23), and enter upon the performance of the Gaya and following oblations.

[p. 297]

10. Having performed (the ceremonies) down to the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire), he puts up towards the south with the next (verse, II, 22, 24) a stone as a barrier for those among whom a death has occurred.

End of the Apastambiya-Grihya-sutra.

Footnotes

295:3 23, 3. Comp. Hiranyak. I, 4, 14, 7.

296:6 6, 7. Comp. Paraskara III, 7; Hiranyak. I, 4, 13, 19 seqq.

 

[p. 298] [p. 299]

 

4-Star Hotels Under $99! Stay in Style - For Less. Book Now and Save!